What Was the Ancestor of Everything? (feat. PBS Space Time and It’s Okay To Be Smart)


Comentarios • 1 161

  • Ross MacDonald
    Ross MacDonald Hace 8 horas

    I imagine the answer to this is very unlikely, but what are the odds that LUCA is still alive today, down in those hydrothermal vents? Also, if LUCA was still alive today, how would we know it was LUCA and not a decedent of LUCA? (Hypothetically speaking)

  • Larry Jeffryes
    Larry Jeffryes Hace 21 un hora

    Has the Earth ever had a considerably denser atmosphere? Perhaps accommodating blood flow to heads atop taller necks?

  • Mud Sh-sh-shark
    Mud Sh-sh-shark Hace 2 días

    hey it's Hank!

  • Taylor M.
    Taylor M. Hace 3 días

    Can you do a video about carbon dating and how fossils are dated?

  • Carlos Rios
    Carlos Rios Hace 4 días

    Hank and Joe are the same person
    Change my mind.

  • Transforming318
    Transforming318 Hace 5 días

    Hank u r so good

  • Mymango bango
    Mymango bango Hace 6 días

    It is. It is so good. Thank you.

  • kuy stalheim
    kuy stalheim Hace 7 días

    Point break

  • Ench Wraits
    Ench Wraits Hace 10 días

    so L.U.C.A. is more like a virus than a cell

  • maggs131
    maggs131 Hace 10 días

    None of this drivel explains the wonders of cheese

  • Tiller Stevens
    Tiller Stevens Hace 10 días

    I was just commenting that the beauty of biology is knowing [bio]-chemistry, which is easier to understand if you know physics. And I was not disappointed by how these three teamed up together. Such a good episode. And of course - I watched them all in order: Physics --> Biochem --> Biology; because that's how everything is ordered (biology being all encompassing!)

  • Edward Marasigan
    Edward Marasigan Hace 11 días

    Marvel: Infinity War is the most ambitious crossover event in history

  • Icespoon
    Icespoon Hace 11 días +1

    I learned more in an 12 minute video than in 12 years of school

  • kaiser der variante
    kaiser der variante Hace 11 días


  • Mariel Dickerson
    Mariel Dickerson Hace 11 días

    They essentially are saying with the LUCA theory that we are all related

  • Very SnipySharky
    Very SnipySharky Hace 11 días +1

    so... we are actually inbreeding?

  • Blair Riding
    Blair Riding Hace 12 días

    At the time LUCA was alive, wouldn't the entirety of the oceans have been chemically similar to a hydrothermal vent, at least in the ways described in this video?

  • Azathoth Asul morgul
    Azathoth Asul morgul Hace 13 días

    After we warmed up mars enough we could use the trees in the carbon era to create oxygen and coal because without the carbon era insects eating the trees they will grow faster we could make enormous layers of coal and oxygen

  • Azathoth Asul morgul
    Azathoth Asul morgul Hace 13 días

    We should revive luca so that we can recreate all species that ever existed on earth some extinct species might have evolved lost skills that dont exist anymore and we could use some species to terraform planets that current species might not be able to cuz they lost the skills maybe some extinct bacteria that might be able to survive venus turning it into a more earth like conditions

  • Götterdämmerung -
    Götterdämmerung - Hace 13 días +1

    ...and to think that a political party in this country works to suppress such ideas....bigly sad....

  • X Joubert
    X Joubert Hace 14 días

    Greatest crossover ever

  • Emma Searing
    Emma Searing Hace 14 días

    Why would Luca be set lower on the tree if there were two branches instead of one?

  • 1bgrant
    1bgrant Hace 14 días

    Did LUCA live on the second floor?

  • himynamesfather
    himynamesfather Hace 14 días

    Step 1: Reverse engineer Luca
    Step 2: create new branch of life
    Step 3:?????
    Step 4: profit

  • Deon Murr
    Deon Murr Hace 15 días

    If molecular splicing is possible, fusing two strands of DNA to create a single new species. That's a topic I've always thought about ever since I saw Batman Beyond and wondered if humans could possibly ever do that.

  • chessmoon
    chessmoon Hace 15 días

    if life is inevitable in the universe we could find an analogous luca in the hydrothermal vents of Europa and Enceladus

  • Scooby Dooby
    Scooby Dooby Hace 15 días

    Given the information provided in this video alone it's very well possible that the information is entirely lost at this point and will never be found. Science has limitations after all. Without emprical data you cannot even apply hypothesis in any meaningful way using our decidedly limited human ability to reason. At least taken from the perspective of three, or if your prefer, four dimensional spacial understanding...

  • TapirLover 100
    TapirLover 100 Hace 16 días

    Is that a tapir skeleton at 0:16 ?

  • Pat C
    Pat C Hace 17 días +1

    Matt and Hank in the same video is the best thing I never knew I needed.

  • African Explorer
    African Explorer Hace 17 días

    So much information so little time...

  • sly
    sly Hace 18 días

    Everything can be traced back to

    Darude - sandstorm

  • Dirk DigDuggler
    Dirk DigDuggler Hace 18 días

    My name is Luca,
    I live in the Precambrian Era.

  • Chirag Ganesh
    Chirag Ganesh Hace 21 un día

    @PBSeons So just a question. How do we know that there was a LUCA? If the process of the creation of life happened once on earth, why do we say it couldn't happen twice or ten times? Isn't that an assumption that is sort of far reaching? Maybe the the spawning of life is like the migrations of an animal that spreads across the globe? Not one single root but repeated and contiguous spawning and spreading driven by natural selection? That could explain how the genetics ends up similar, certain means or characteristics that are simply too efficient not to use (Example wings for flight in the idea of convergent evolution) I would love if someone would find holes in this idea and improve my understanding of this.

    • Chirag Ganesh
      Chirag Ganesh Hace 21 un día

      PS: I love nerding out at 3 am lol

  • FruitJuicy
    FruitJuicy Hace 21 un día


  • alya allam
    alya allam Hace 21 un día

    My nephew name is Luca lol

  • Elvin 4890127
    Elvin 4890127 Hace 23 días

    Sometimes I wonder what the great minds of the past like Darwin could do with the resources we have now.

  • Nirmal Raj
    Nirmal Raj Hace 23 días

    Can you please look into the mitochondrial mother

  • HAL420
    HAL420 Hace 23 días

    Luca was a platapus

  • brian554xx
    brian554xx Hace 24 días

    For anyone searching for LUCA, have you looked on the second floor?

  • DT Luveros
    DT Luveros Hace 26 días

    those two look so similar

  • Gilbert Tang
    Gilbert Tang Hace 26 días

    It looks like it takes Matt O’Dowd so much effort to talk. I guess that’s part of why I appreciate what he does so much.

  • Dave McKay
    Dave McKay Hace 27 días

    There is no first anima l.

  • Genaro Cuellar
    Genaro Cuellar Hace 27 días

    This video still does not explaing the components of the "Big Bang" and where "They" came from.
    Just explains the same ol same ol. Nothing prolific here.

  • CurbsideUnderwood
    CurbsideUnderwood Hace 27 días +1

    I love all of these videos!!!!!!!!!!

  • Eamon Ahern
    Eamon Ahern Hace 27 días

    How about an episode on why there's no evidence to suggest that ancient prehistoric creatures such as dinosaurs developed some form of tool use or (however primitive) technology?

  • David Bowman
    David Bowman Hace 27 días

    I remember my biological teacher saying after a transparency about genetics flew off an overhead projector from a gust of wind coming from an open window, "just goes to show that you shouldn't drop your genes!"

  • aventh 1
    aventh 1 Hace 27 días

    Where do Stromatolites fit in all this? Arent they one of the oldest living things?

  • Vivek Chouhan
    Vivek Chouhan Hace 28 días

    I always wondered how venom is only evolved in snakes. Does this sound interesting???

  • nicole delcourt
    nicole delcourt Hace 28 días +1

    Thank you for trying to educate us with such passion knowledge and clarity

  • Richie Rich
    Richie Rich Hace 28 días +2

    Apparently my brother loves this channel and watches its videos regularly. I love PBS SpaceTime. I am glad to see my bro's favorite channel and my favorite channel collaborating. If I only had a sister whose favorite channel was It's Okay To Be Smart it would have been a trifecta.

  • Richie Rich
    Richie Rich Hace 28 días +1

    PBS Space Time sent me here. Less than 30 seconds into the video and there I see a familiar face.

  • Joseph Wallace
    Joseph Wallace Hace 28 días

    H A N K G R E E N

  • Mitchell Zimmerman
    Mitchell Zimmerman Hace 29 días


  • James Ball
    James Ball Hace 29 días

    What you don’t mention is that Darwin thought LUCA would be extremely simple. Now we know that LUCA was amazingly complex. The cellular machinery and enzymes needed to create life require an encoded informational density that is too large to have self assemble out of pure chaos from the simple components in the primordial soup. The first pre LUCA progenitor could not have evolved over millions of years since cells live in real time. That means all the necessary machinery for metabolism and reproduction had to be present along with all the necessary enzymes & cellular machinery to construct the enzymes. Evolution can’t explain the origin of the components in the proto LUCA because these, and the dna or rna encoded information had to exist before it came into being. Even Darwin invoked diety saying this was the first organism that received the breath of life.

  • Norman1951 Norman
    Norman1951 Norman Hace 29 días +1

    Excellent introduction to the idea of LUCA. Thanks

  • Kippered Herrings
    Kippered Herrings Hace 29 días

    When the Yellowstone Super volcano erupts none of this will be of any importance. It will be a massive extinction event and humans will not survive. Except maybe Amazonian tribes.

  • Paul Quinn
    Paul Quinn Hace 29 días +1

    I want to learn about everything.....so get crackin'!

  • Andrew Payne
    Andrew Payne Hace 29 días

    How do we know that all extant life really has a common ancestor?

  • Gregory Von Dare
    Gregory Von Dare Hace un mes

    My biggest worry is that there are lots of smart kids locked into religious households where their ability to question and think outside the box is repressed if not completely quashed. What can you do to incrementally appeal to these kids who are taught that the Earth is five thousand years old and that humans co-existed with dinosaurs? There must be a way to set them free.

  • Chris Layne
    Chris Layne Hace un mes

    Why 'last' and not 'first' ancestor? Someone lighten me up. I think my brain can't make sense of this for some reason. #fuca

  • Блядь Россия

    The problem with trying to determine a LUCA is that the relaxed Bayesian mathematics behind most of the analysis totally goes to hell when there’s lateral gene transfer. Which has happened a lot. Even Joe Felsenstein readily admits it. Also, the idea for Archeae being a distinct clade wasn’t completely Carl’s idea- Ralph Wolfe had significant input on that. When the idea of LUCA was first conceived, there were no genomes sequenced- it was based strictly on ribosomal RNA sequencing. Woese’ (whole genome) collaboration with Venter didn’t start until 1994.

  • Pan Darius Kairos
    Pan Darius Kairos Hace un mes

    Darkness is the ancestor of everything...

  • Jintaro Kensei
    Jintaro Kensei Hace un mes +2

    Just a thought: If another civilization would want to seed a planet, wouldn't it make sense to shotgun it with a variety of organism which are unique and can survive in different environments. Last one standing would be our ancestors.

  • Tom Eveson
    Tom Eveson Hace un mes +1

    We see thru the eyes of Luca

  • DavidFMayerPhD
    DavidFMayerPhD Hace un mes +1

    One further possible configuration of the "Tree of Life".
    First Cell
    First cell line splits into Bacteria & Archaea
    Bacteria & Archaea each diverges further.
    One particular branch of Bacteria and one particular branch of Archaea MERGE to form the common ancestor of Eucaria, which I call Proto-Eucaria. So, instead of a split, we had a union of both lines into the FIRST COMPLEX cell (complex compared to Bacteria & Archaea).
    Proto-Eucaria then absorbed other primitive organisms which left no independent line today. These became the ancestors of the common eukaryotic cellular organelles such as peroxisomes, lysosomes, golgisomes, etc ...
    This eucaryotic cell line absorbed a bacterial cell which became an internal symbiont and later and became the integrated organelle now called the mitochondrion. Incorporation of a spirochete followed, leading to the cilia, flagella, and centrioles. This completed the common ancestor of all extant eucariotes.
    One more incorporation, that of a cyanobacterium led to photosynthetic algae.

  • Hirendra Prakash
    Hirendra Prakash Hace un mes

    where virus come from....

  • Darryl Lyle
    Darryl Lyle Hace un mes

    What about Vira? I thought there Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryaot, and Vira. Doesn't some theories state that Vira is important to evolution because of how they affect the host through genetics?

  • Xiclotrode
    Xiclotrode Hace un mes


  • Bethany Cook
    Bethany Cook Hace un mes

    This is cool!!!

  • Fran rewinder
    Fran rewinder Hace un mes

    Wow! Jeans are awesome

  • Raphael Reineke
    Raphael Reineke Hace un mes

    Great intro vid thanks
    My question:
    Are genetic mutations caused by say gamma ray bursts travelling from deep space or massive exposure to soar flares passed on to the next generation ie. ‘inheritable’

  • caroline short
    caroline short Hace un mes

    I'd love to know more about slime molds and where they fit in to the fungi/animal scheme of things

  • Luca Gruber
    Luca Gruber Hace un mes

    Well that's a pretty sick acronym

  • Skelath
    Skelath Hace un mes

    Progenawhat?! We're decedants of potatoes?!

  • Ag3nt0fCha0s
    Ag3nt0fCha0s Hace un mes

    How can it not be the first thing that lived?
    Surely the first thing that lived led to everything else?
    I very much doubt that something lived... died... then life appeared again.
    But hey, I am no expert.
    I think it is explained in the video but I will have to watch it again.

    • dlevi67
      dlevi67 Hace un mes

      Even if life only originated once, remember that the L in LUCA stands for "Last" - it's the last common ancestor of all existing lifeforms.
      Think of your family - if you have cousins (sons of your uncles/aunts), your and their human LUCA is your common grandparent(s), even if you can trace your own (and their) family tree twenty or more generations back.

  • Stephen Willison
    Stephen Willison Hace un mes +1

    can you do a video about how humans took over the planet

  • Bryan DeCamps
    Bryan DeCamps Hace un mes


  • Janos Reyes
    Janos Reyes Hace un mes

    is it possible that LUCA may have been the first to live?? but why do we have just have a LUCA?? why did the process stop today (at least not again for the last 3.8 billion years), we still have all conditions for life, as such in the billions of years these conditions have existed shouldn't we be seeing more and different aged original ancestors or examples of life transforming from non-life today?? perhaps new organisms or RNA from scratch??

    • ientereda name
      ientereda name Hace un mes

      But there are species changing all the time today. For example, White Tail Deer have changed from usually feeding during the day during November in Wisconsin to feeding during the night time more because of hunting pressure that us humans have put on them. This round ball that we live on is big that it would be almost impossible to see it with our own eyes in the life span that humans live.

  • he_who_is_nobody
    he_who_is_nobody Hace un mes

    You should visit the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. I will give you a tour.

    • PBS Eons
      PBS Eons  Hace un mes

      I'd like that! I used to live in Albuquerque! (BdeP)

  • Gh Oxon
    Gh Oxon Hace un mes

    These videos are really great, and pretty accurate. But seeing the interest in the comments about different kinds of ancestral organisms, I think you should do a few episodes on how we can infer what these things were like, I.e. tree thinking and parsimony. Over at space time, they do an awesome job of making pretty advanced concepts accessible. I don’t see why it wouldn’t work here.
    Ps you should do an episode on resurrecting ancestral molecules. Because you know, we can do that now.

  • I love cats I just love cats

    But did plants come from LUCA? ... And if not. Where do plants come from?

  • Davis Pearson
    Davis Pearson Hace un mes

    How is the t-Rex the most common ancestor of the chicken

  • Da Hooded Crow
    Da Hooded Crow Hace un mes

    I want to know more about how amino acids are coded from strands of RNA?
    What constitutes a gene, how many codons or base pairs, how do we discriminate where one gene starts and another one ends? Does the genome have punctuation, like a full stop?
    What reads the code?

  • Vidhya Sagar
    Vidhya Sagar Hace un mes

    Tree as a trunk,branches and most importantly roots then why do we look only at the trunk ?

    • ientereda name
      ientereda name Hace un mes +1

      Because it is easier to see the above ground things than the below ground things.

  • Vidhya Sagar
    Vidhya Sagar Hace un mes

    Progenotes sounds like viruses

  • Redlinemonster
    Redlinemonster Hace un mes

    Question, if viruses need a host to survive does that mean that whenever the first life form existed a virus came along with it ?

  • Amadeus
    Amadeus Hace un mes +7

    Invent a time machine, retrieve a single LUCA, create the biggest grandfather paradox imaginable.

  • WuzNab
    WuzNab Hace un mes +1

    I just want to get some confirmation here...
    Was the first life on Earth a jello absorbing random things and disintegrating it into more jello "kind of like acid".
    Then sometimes the jello breaks apart cause it doesn't have an outer layer or anything to hold it together?
    Would you consider that living???
    Or just an acidic, gelatinous mess???
    Cause it is technically replicating...
    Then Rna was just a random noodle kind of like when you are eating some good Pho then you see this tiny ass noodle in your soup.
    And the Jello somehow collided and absorbed it.
    THEN tiny spikes collected on the RNA, (since the jello is still swallowing things) and those tiny spikes were made of chemicals that affected what the jello would make. Kind of like how if you mix different chemicals it will have different reactions.
    Or maybe I'm just crazy :D

    • Drowns In Kool Aid
      Drowns In Kool Aid Hace un mes

      WuzNab Yeah that's not too far off. Same with how viruses and bacteria are living even though they show no intelligence or purpose for what they do, the original life forms would basically have been (probably) some gelatinous form arising from a mishmash of replicating proteins.

  • Orkhanius
    Orkhanius Hace un mes +1

    You're awesome

  • Marispider (Ze Medic)
    Marispider (Ze Medic) Hace un mes

    The description of progenotes reminds me of viruses, they can't reproduce (well, viruses can't on their own) and they basically are just RNA surrounded by a membrane/shell. Which makes me wonder... where did viruses first develop? I know they aren't technically alive, but they nearly are.

  • Michael Anderson
    Michael Anderson Hace un mes

    How are the numbers? Has there been enough time to randomly run the permutations for natural selection to have had something to act on?

  • Lilly Aguilar
    Lilly Aguilar Hace un mes

    What did the T-Rex really look like? Did it have lips coving it’s teeth? Why was the gastralia left off the skeletons in museums? Did it have feathers!? I really want to learn about a scientifically accurate T-Rex! :D

    • Michael Anderson
      Michael Anderson Hace un mes +1

      Lilly Aguilar , I saw where a new type of dinosaur was found in the Canadian tar sands that was complete with it's skin and scales, all fossilized.

  • Tori Husen
    Tori Husen Hace un mes +1

    Awesome video!

  • Cickak
    Cickak Hace un mes

    We could be searching for a long time if our last common ancestor was actually a result of panspermia. Which I think is the most likely to have happened since it just pops up with 600 to 1000 genes and our planet is so much younger than the universe.
    Image tardigrades on meteorites formed from earth comet impacts that are right now on their way to potentially bring life to alien planets, millions upon millions of years from now. Their tree of life would start with a really complex creature already!

  • Coco Man
    Coco Man Hace un mes +1

    Martin's approach of "not looking for the genes everyone has but for the oldest genes" doesent seems to hold very well... On a completely opposite approach, a gene present in only four taxa is likely to be a recent product in a certain branch or the result of horizontal gene transfer.

  • Stephen Louderback
    Stephen Louderback Hace un mes

    So progenotes are a lot like viruses in that they are not considered to be living things but just bits of DNA? "...a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat..." www.google.com/search?q=What+is+a+virus&oq=What+is+a+virus&aqs=chrome..69i57.5743j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

  • RagHelen
    RagHelen Hace un mes

    The last two minutes are a conclusion which is not in the data. Moreover, I want to see evidence that in the age of Luca there were hotspots like on today ocean ground.

    THE COLOR MAGE Hace un mes

    So LUCA is polygon and Pokemon do exist.

  • Magnum Polmatier
    Magnum Polmatier Hace un mes

    I can't help but to wonder... If life is so basic that it may form from chemicals and energy over a period of 200-300 million years (or a second) -- why would we expect life today to have a single common ancestor? Wouldn't it be a simpler idea that the early proteins (and more recent ones) were repeatedly remade throughout the last 4 billion years and in a few cases even managed to "breed' into early or otherwise simple organisms?

  • Michele Schiavetta
    Michele Schiavetta Hace un mes

    Love it! But a little side note: that background behind Hank is very boring.