How Two Microbes Changed History

  • Publicado el 15 ene 2018
  • What if I told you that, more than two billion years ago, some tiny living thing started to live inside another living thing … and never left? And now, the descendants of both of those things are in you?
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    Chemical and membrane similarities between prokaryotes and organelles:
    Margolin W. 2005. FTSZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 6(11): 862-871.
    Wise RR, Hoober JK. 2007. Structure and function of plastids. Springer, Berlin. (Chapter 5)
    ISBN 9781402065705
    Zeth K, Thein M. 2010. Porins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common themes and variations. Biochemical Journal 431(1): 13-22.
    DOI: 10.1042/BJ20100371
    Fischer K, Weber A, Brink S, Arbinger B, Schünemann D, Borchert S, Heldt HW, Popp B, Link TA, Eckeskorn C, Flügge U-I. 1994. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two new members of the porin family. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269(41): 25754-25760.
    Fairman JW, Noinaj N, Buchanan SK. 2011. The structural biology of β-barrel membrane proteins: a summary of recent reports. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 21(4): 523-531.
    Mileykovskaya E, Dowhan W. 2009. Cardiolipin membrane domains in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 1788(10): 2084-2091.
    Organelle genomes, organelle dependence on the host cells:
    Timmis JN, Ayliffe MA, Huang CY, Martin W. 2004. Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes. Nature Reviews Genetics 5: 123-135.
    Andersson SGE, Zomorodipour A, Andersson JO, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Alsmark UCM, Podowski RM, Näslund AK, Eriksson A-S, Winkler HH, Kurland CG. 1998. The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria. Nature 396: 133-140.
    Stoebe B, Kowallik KV. 1999. Gene-cluster analysis in chloroplast genomics. Trends in Genetics 15, 344-347.
    Douglas A, Raven JA. 2003. Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles. Philosophical Transactions B 358(1429): 5-18.
    doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1188
    Dagan T, Roettger M, Stucken K, Landan G, Koch R, Major P, Gould SB, Goremykin VV, Rippka R, Tandeue de Marsac N, Gugger M, Lockhart PJ, Allen JF, Brune I, Maus I, Pühler A, Martin WF. 2013. Genomes of stigonematalean cyanobacteria (Subsection V) and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to plastids. Genome Biology and Evolution 5(1): 31-44.
    History of the idea:
    Sagan, L. 1967. On the origin of mitosing cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology 14(3): 225-274.
    Oldest fossil appearances:
    Bengtson S, Sallstedt T,Belivanova V, Whitehouse M. 2017. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggest 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae. PLOS Biology 15(3): e2000735.
    Bengtson S, Rasmussen B, Ivarsson M, Muhling J, Broman C, Marone F, Stampononi M, Bekker A. 2017. Fungus-like mycelial fossils in 2.4-billion-year-old vesicular basalt. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1, Article number: 0141 (2017)
  • Ciencia y tecnologíaCiencia y tecnología

Comentarios • 733

  • Stephen Hazel
    Stephen Hazel Hace un día

    more about cells please :))))))

  • 1001 10111011
    1001 10111011 Hace 2 días

    If you can't explain it then I don't have to believe it. In fact, we shouldn't believe it until you can prove it.

  • Boris Chan
    Boris Chan Hace 4 días

    there are single cell sea creatures that hunt algae when they are born, and when they swallow one, the algae is unharmed and the cell behave change to more plant like. This might remnant of evolutionary past

  • Peter Wexler
    Peter Wexler Hace 6 días

    Built into the design of the Universe is the chance encounter.

  • Reza Achmadi
    Reza Achmadi Hace 10 días


  • Baruch Ben-David
    Baruch Ben-David Hace 11 días

    So two microbes fuse into one. How do they reproduce? Host cell splits. What happens to the guest? What would make the two microbes split at the same time?

  • Salkafar
    Salkafar Hace 13 días

    #Lynn Margulis.

  • Stratokrat
    Stratokrat Hace 14 días

    I can't check out SpaceTime. SpaceTime brought me here.

  • blueckaym
    blueckaym Hace 18 días

    I still didn't get two things:
    1) How the Eukaryote and its symbiotic bacteria got to procreate more or less proportionally (I understand that randomly some new cells would have more, less or none of the new Mitochondrion for example. But my question is how it came to the current state that is no longer chance dependent?)
    2) How exactly Mitochondrion allowed higher complexity of the living organisms? I understand they play vital role as energy factories, which would make the host cells stronger and survive more often. But that could easily mean they'll procreate more (as in more single-cell organisms) rather than evolve higher complexity (ie multi-cell organisms).
    Could you elaborate on these two topics?

    • blueckaym
      blueckaym Hace 13 días

      Thanks for the answers!
      About the 2nd one - I understand how ordered natural selection can promote the successful random combinations, but I wanted to get an idea how the process actually happened - like if you had to reproduce it :)
      My point is (besides curiosity of course) is that if we understand this process perhaps we can reproduce it with synthetic/robotics. Because designing and producing simpler machines, that are capable of combining into more complex ones for a given purpose can be very efficient.
      Think from nanobots to Von Neumann probes.
      So if by random chance complex multi-cell organisms appeared and prospered, which is understandable given enough time and activity. Then similar to the 1st question - how did they stabilize their form or symbiotic existence so that it can evolve further instead of dying of with the next generation.
      Just statistic and chance don't seem enough to me , or such stable multi-cellular forms won't exists for long and certainly not in such great variety.
      Obviously the great variety is strong indicator of the numerous re-combinations that have happened until successful complex organisms persisted. But if it was just that, today we would see lots of spontaneous deconstruction of complex forms just as randomly.
      Here's an example that I learned of recently - dictyostelium (from Joe Hanson:ídeo.html), which seems to manifests both simple single-cell form, and when necessary combine forces and travel as a multi-cell organism. Such processes can't be explained with selective randomness alone. They hint at some greater (even if hidder) design.
      So that trigger to higher-complexity (or vice versa) is what I'm really interested.

    • Bogwedgle
      Bogwedgle Hace 13 días

      1) At first it's certainly possible that the amount of mitochondria in a cell was pretty random, but as the relationship evolved, those mitochondria that reproduced closer to the perfect number where they produced enough energy but didn't consume all of the host cells resources would have been more likely to survive and reproduce along with their host cell, so they'd naturally gravitate towards that balance.
      2) Some eukaryotes went one way, others went the other way, both have their pros and cons but as you can see today both single celled and multi-cellular eukaryotes were wildly successful in their own way. Evolution rarely only chooses one path to success when multiple are available.

  • The31st
    The31st Hace 24 días

    havent watched yet. If the answer is chloroplasts and "the powerhouse of the cell" then...I guess I win

  • pinkgalah
    pinkgalah Hace un mes +1

    This is what i needed in my bilogy exam

  • Listen The Shadow
    Listen The Shadow Hace un mes

    The original host would've actually been an archaeon, however. It's a very common mistake, and I can't blame you guys. You all know more than me, though, so please, feel free to correct me.

    ASHLEY COFFELL Hace un mes

    Thanks for assuming we all use cheap microscopes hahaha

  • Charley Wymore
    Charley Wymore Hace un mes +1

    What if I told you that there was a meme at the beginning of this video?

  • TharrisNogaud
    TharrisNogaud Hace un mes +1

    Yes! Well done! Beautifully presented it is an elegant saga in which we all continue to play a role in Life's continual Evolution!

  • Nic
    Nic Hace un mes

    "One bacterium started living within another larger bacterium." I though eukaryotes were more related to archaea.

  • Lowie Dewind
    Lowie Dewind Hace 2 meses


  • Collin Bybee
    Collin Bybee Hace 2 meses

    Did she just assume my complexity?

  • Gneo Salen
    Gneo Salen Hace 2 meses

    Darkkmane anyone? MITOCHONDRIA.

  • klyana130
    klyana130 Hace 2 meses +1

    THIS IS THE REALITY SCIENCE for the FANTASY SCIFI BASIS OF GEORGE LUCAS' MIDICHLORIANS!! THAT CAN CHANNEL 'the Force' ENERGY form in that galaxy lifeforms in addition to electromagnetic solar or chemical foods.! And Different Star Wars species have higher or stronger concentrations in their cells from evolution but can TRAIN (Jedi/Sith) to use them better like athletics in real life end up with higher mitochondria counts in muscle cells for energy.

  • Hu Sheng Vang
    Hu Sheng Vang Hace 2 meses

    my mind is blown

  • Sam Haines
    Sam Haines Hace 2 meses +1

    another excellent video! like to know more about archaea and giant viruses please

  • b1itsjustme
    b1itsjustme Hace 2 meses

    wow, thanks

  • blueshifter
    blueshifter Hace 2 meses

    Why didn't you mention that the endosymbiotic host was probably an archaea?

  • Dekus4life
    Dekus4life Hace 2 meses

    Poor mitochondria :( getting locked up and having its children forced to work in a labor camp (cell) One like equals one freed mitochondria

  • Kevin Byrne
    Kevin Byrne Hace 2 meses

    What do I want to know about?
    The role of endogenous retroviruses in the evolution of life on Earth.

  • RagingBubuli
    RagingBubuli Hace 2 meses

    What if we GMO mice to have Chloroplast?

  • Fred Bruche
    Fred Bruche Hace 2 meses

    Another example of secondary endosymbiosis (not ubiquitous as the ones presented here though) is the apicoplast organelle of protozoan parasites. Just to make the point that it happened also in eucaryotes that remained small :)

  • Eukleides K
    Eukleides K Hace 2 meses

    Is there an evolutionary explanation for multi-nucleate cells, like myocytes? And, are there other examples? They just seem so weird!

  • G Gentry
    G Gentry Hace 2 meses

    I understand how a larger cell can capture a smaller bacterium cell but how does the dna from both cells fuse so that a daughter cell is created that is a single unit of the larger cell with mitochondria? Simply a larger cell capturing a smaller one wouldn’t necessarily mean an integrated future cell. Or does it work like when the larger cell is ready to divide, the smaller one divides as well so eukaryotes actually have multiple divisions within the greater overall division?

  • Bel Rick
    Bel Rick Hace 2 meses

    All living things on earth are made of cells? No. Not at all. Cells ARE the living things. Life as you call it are rather COLONIES of living things.

  • joey flores
    joey flores Hace 2 meses +1

    This channel is seriously amazing.

  • Jairo Fonseca
    Jairo Fonseca Hace 2 meses +1

    Great, I learned more with this 8 min video than all my biology class in high school.

  • Sjwaria Law
    Sjwaria Law Hace 2 meses


    Great video!

  • GnR !!!
    GnR !!! Hace 3 meses

    I would really enjoy a video on junk Dna and what it consists of (retroviruses, transposable elements etc)

  • order_of_chaos
    order_of_chaos Hace 3 meses

    So I am basically a walking mass of highly co-dependant bacteria. That's kind of awesome.

  • david smith
    david smith Hace 3 meses

    This is a million times more amazing than the Bible's version of how life began. Another win for evolution, the evidence score is evolution countless to creationism ZERO

  • jeff sanz
    jeff sanz Hace 3 meses

    one of my favorite channels too other than Kurzgesagt and this episode is amazing! keep making videos you guys!

  • Ralph Boots
    Ralph Boots Hace 3 meses

    Even three times? I wasn't aware of the third time it happened.
    Question though, I understand the how, but why are the male mitochondrea excluded from the male gametes? What is the evolutionary benefit in that? Are there any species in which a cell has two mitochondrea, one from each parent? The last I doubt, but I wouldn't be surprised about either.

  • Novicelypro
    Novicelypro Hace 3 meses +1

    Did you just assume I'm a Eukaryote? Ughh, organismist

  • Dan Vallentyne
    Dan Vallentyne Hace 3 meses

    Was it a Bacteria that engulfed the mitochondrial progenitor or an archeon?

  • Paperclip
    Paperclip Hace 3 meses

    We should spread microbes on all habitable planets with unmanned spaceshuttles. Hopefully some of them develop intelligence and in a few billion years when earth is gone the galaxy will be covered with life.

  • Tiberian Fiend
    Tiberian Fiend Hace 3 meses

    What about peroxisomes?

  • Jim Bones
    Jim Bones Hace 3 meses

    lets go live in a whale...see what science history we can make

  • Gestline Anurue
    Gestline Anurue Hace 3 meses

    I wanna have the soundtrack for your vids. It's amazing

  • whodidit99
    whodidit99 Hace 3 meses

    But how was mitochondria passed on ?

  • DoubleIrish DutchSandwich
    DoubleIrish DutchSandwich Hace 3 meses +1

    This is one of the best videos I have seen. You provide background information, then explain the idea, then you explain the empirical evidence for the idea. Beautiful

  • Oh My Lord Taecyeon
    Oh My Lord Taecyeon Hace 3 meses

    This one was much harder to follow than the others 🙂

  • Kody Gold
    Kody Gold Hace 3 meses

    Hey guys, love the vids, but i haven't found one on the history of fungus As how they evolve. As a wannabe mycologist, i think it'd be really cool to hear your take about the rise of fungus and what they brought to the ecosystem, how they diversified so rapidly given they each require a specific growing medium, and what the introduction of fungus meant for plant and animal life in termsof evolution. Thanks!

  • magic reborn
    magic reborn Hace 3 meses

    Did you just assume my cell type?😈😈

  • bram vergunst
    bram vergunst Hace 3 meses

    Did you just assume my complexity?

  • Robert B
    Robert B Hace 3 meses

    Way to assume the quality of my microscope.

  • DieFlabbergast
    DieFlabbergast Hace 4 meses

    Seventy-one prokaryotes (thus far) disliked this video.

  • Fantastic Yeast
    Fantastic Yeast Hace 4 meses

    please cover origin of sight on Earth. please please please.

  • Thomas ferris
    Thomas ferris Hace 4 meses

    T H E M I T O C H O N D R I A I S T H E P O W E R H O U S E O F T H E C E L L

  • Karl Patrick Pacheco
    Karl Patrick Pacheco Hace 4 meses

    Amazing, I already knew it was mitochondria but the story is really cool

  • jamrenzee
    jamrenzee Hace 4 meses

    Don't know if it quite matches your theme, but could you do a video on what sort of fossils and remains humans will leave behind to possibly be found millions to billions of years later? Would you be able to tell how advanced human civilization was from its fossil record?

  • UltimoFox700
    UltimoFox700 Hace 4 meses +1

    Me liking this video tipped it to 7.7K likes. :)

  • Jerome Decock
    Jerome Decock Hace 4 meses

    Amazing and instructive video...I just understood the reason why children inherits mitochondria exclusively from their mother

  • Daemunum
    Daemunum Hace 4 meses

    1:31 did she just call my microscope cheap??

  • Orkhanius
    Orkhanius Hace 4 meses +1

    Beautiful video :)

  • Andre Abreu
    Andre Abreu Hace 4 meses

    Eukaryotes shall never kill and consume other eukaryotes.

  • waffleless
    waffleless Hace 4 meses

    Could we artificially create symbiosis between isolated cells and random bacteria?
    I want to see what that would do.

  • MrHuntervad
    MrHuntervad Hace 4 meses

    That was awesome! So that's why they needed another woman's egg cell, because the disease it had, they just changed the nucleus. This was a more in depth view.

  • Will Andersen
    Will Andersen Hace 5 meses

    Did anyone else notice Tully Monster at 6:44?

  • ChemikGN
    ChemikGN Hace 5 meses

    *Mitochondria is the power house of the (inhales) C E L L (exhales)*

  • Random Dude posting
    Random Dude posting Hace 5 meses

    I got a good video topic what was the first signs of viruses and what is there purpose in the ecosystem just curious.

  • mishael1
    mishael1 Hace 5 meses +1

    PBS Eons you got a major thing wrong. The consensus today is that the bigger single celled organism was Archea, while a Bacteria eventually became the mitochondria.

  • Field
    Field Hace 5 meses +1

    Awesome video! I can't get enough of this channel and the host is wearing such a great outfit in this one!

  • Ramsey Lee
    Ramsey Lee Hace 5 meses

    Let's include that in mitochondria and chloroplasts the chromosome is is circular like that in bacteria and these organelles divide by binary fission, again, as do bacteria. Also, the ribosomes in these organelles are of the 70S types, that bacteria have, not like our "main" ribosomes that are 80S types. And, when cultured out of a cell, mitochondria and chloroplasts are sensitive to the antagonistic effects of some antibiotics, again, like bacteria.
    Yes, I am a college biology instructor.

  • First Last
    First Last Hace 5 meses

    wait , so kelp have 2 kinds of chloroplasts?

  • Nolo Atmo
    Nolo Atmo Hace 5 meses

    Great video! She forgot to talk about the midi-chlorians, though. ;)

  • Madcircle Throughell
    Madcircle Throughell Hace 5 meses

    So milky way really is the star wars galaxy

  • Eco
    Eco Hace 5 meses

    I am totally human, I'm not a prokaryote *grins*

  • Ahmad Fauzi
    Ahmad Fauzi Hace 5 meses

    I wan't to ask. Is a protozoa is a animal anchestor? Why and when?

  • Brendan Carlton
    Brendan Carlton Hace 5 meses

    I want more Anomalocharis.

    KOT EBANA ROT Hace 6 meses +3

    im just... in absolute awe that we are here. WE are here. thinking, feeling, asking questions. this is unbelievable.

  • ShadowDaPk
    ShadowDaPk Hace 6 meses

    Did they just assume my cellular complexity?

  • Marcel
    Marcel Hace 6 meses

    This made me wonder, can bacteria be parasitic too? Can single-cell organisms invade healthy cells and live in them for long periods of time without killing them?

  • Sambhranta Gupta
    Sambhranta Gupta Hace 6 meses

    I didn't knew a bit about this,that was a great information.

  • Alberto Adrián Schiano

    I also believe this.
    I imagine the efect of diferent bacterii living in proximity. And geting 'used' to consume what the ohers discarded. Something that occured for ages. At a point that they realized that they wouldn't make it without those other bacterii...
    So they decide to make a club called 'the cell'. And after recognizing that they didn't need anything else to evolve, the make this club a private one.
    So, welcome to Eucariotes!

  • Ethan Wagner
    Ethan Wagner Hace 6 meses

    Okay, so eukaryotes are the result of two organisms becoming one. Might it be possible for multicellular symbiotes to become so interdependent that they are considered one organism?

  • Trung Le
    Trung Le Hace 6 meses

    Wait. I was told that the host cell that take in the mitochondria is not a bacterium, but an archaea. The evidence is that we have similar cell wall structure and our enzymes are similar. I learned about it last year, so surely this infos could have been more thoroughly checked?

  • AvangionQ
    AvangionQ Hace 6 meses

    How many mass extinctions have there really been? There's more than the big five ...

  • Steve Sedio
    Steve Sedio Hace 6 meses

    Another fine example of paparallel evolution (another is the physical shape of wolves, hyena's and Tasmanian tigers, effective predators).
    With all this diversity of life, and lots of very diverse habitats. Why do we only have one DNA? It may be distributed in the cell differently, but it is all variations on the same chemistry. There has to be other combinations of chemicals that would have worked, is DNA that much better? Or, is life so difficult to form, that it takes a long time, and the first combination has time to occupy an entire planet before a second form even starts?

  • Kevin Zimmerman
    Kevin Zimmerman Hace 6 meses

    What happens if a cell splits without the mitochondria/chloroplast inside of it? Does it just die because it doesn't have the energy it needs?

  • LilyMyLolita
    LilyMyLolita Hace 6 meses +1

    This is is the most brilliant biology story I've listened to in my recent memory!

  • Kevin Byrne
    Kevin Byrne Hace 6 meses

    Credit where credit is due:
    Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

  • vanitystr
    vanitystr Hace 6 meses +1

    lol i have a finance exam tomorrow... but here i am watching vids about evolution

  • Leto85
    Leto85 Hace 6 meses +2

    I was looking at this video and got one question:
    How many cells working together in endosymbiosis does it take to create consciousness?

    • Kevin Zimmerman
      Kevin Zimmerman Hace 6 meses

      Go watch some vids on consciousness theories LOL Many people will argue (panpsychists, Orch OR, Phi) that the cells themselves are conscious on some level :)

  • wiadroman
    wiadroman Hace 6 meses

    "You are also more complex than bacteria, I haven't met you but am assuming you are". Well, you don't know how primitive I am.

  • Bleikr Sound
    Bleikr Sound Hace 6 meses

    Theistic Evolution - the belief that life is a result of a universal law of physics, and that there is a single driving force that set these laws into motion.

  • Cynthia Brown
    Cynthia Brown Hace 7 meses

    I Want To Know How Plants Were Made.

  • Billy Quino McCreery
    Billy Quino McCreery Hace 7 meses

    It would be really cool if every time they showed the earth on Eons it was the earth of the time period they were discussing with the landmasses and oceans where they would be

  • twodayoldbagel
    twodayoldbagel Hace 7 meses

    How did dodos evolve? What were their lives like? How did they go extinct?

  • DKforever24
    DKforever24 Hace 7 meses

    But I don't identify as a Eukaryote. . .

  • Matthew .S
    Matthew .S Hace 7 meses

    Small detail, but as I understand it the evidence stronger supports a bacterium being engulfed into an archaea . But i can understand not wanting to explain archaea

  • Marijan Desin
    Marijan Desin Hace 7 meses

    I wonder why did animal cells develop fast paced movement and plant cells are so slow?

  • Thumbs Up Guy
    Thumbs Up Guy Hace 7 meses +1

    This is so beautiful, thank you for helping to understand connection between all living things.

  • Ossy Koi
    Ossy Koi Hace 7 meses

    This is essentially a lecture at university