How Two Microbes Changed History

  • Publicado el 15 ene 2018
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    What if I told you that, more than two billion years ago, some tiny living thing started to live inside another living thing … and never left? And now, the descendants of both of those things are in you?
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    Chemical and membrane similarities between prokaryotes and organelles:
    Margolin W. 2005. FTSZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 6(11): 862-871.
    Wise RR, Hoober JK. 2007. Structure and function of plastids. Springer, Berlin. (Chapter 5)
    ISBN 9781402065705
    Zeth K, Thein M. 2010. Porins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common themes and variations. Biochemical Journal 431(1): 13-22.
    DOI: 10.1042/BJ20100371
    Fischer K, Weber A, Brink S, Arbinger B, Schünemann D, Borchert S, Heldt HW, Popp B, Link TA, Eckeskorn C, Flügge U-I. 1994. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two new members of the porin family. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269(41): 25754-25760.
    Fairman JW, Noinaj N, Buchanan SK. 2011. The structural biology of β-barrel membrane proteins: a summary of recent reports. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 21(4): 523-531.
    Mileykovskaya E, Dowhan W. 2009. Cardiolipin membrane domains in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 1788(10): 2084-2091.
    Organelle genomes, organelle dependence on the host cells:
    Timmis JN, Ayliffe MA, Huang CY, Martin W. 2004. Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes. Nature Reviews Genetics 5: 123-135.
    Andersson SGE, Zomorodipour A, Andersson JO, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Alsmark UCM, Podowski RM, Näslund AK, Eriksson A-S, Winkler HH, Kurland CG. 1998. The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria. Nature 396: 133-140.
    Stoebe B, Kowallik KV. 1999. Gene-cluster analysis in chloroplast genomics. Trends in Genetics 15, 344-347.
    Douglas A, Raven JA. 2003. Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles. Philosophical Transactions B 358(1429): 5-18.
    doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1188
    Dagan T, Roettger M, Stucken K, Landan G, Koch R, Major P, Gould SB, Goremykin VV, Rippka R, Tandeue de Marsac N, Gugger M, Lockhart PJ, Allen JF, Brune I, Maus I, Pühler A, Martin WF. 2013. Genomes of stigonematalean cyanobacteria (Subsection V) and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to plastids. Genome Biology and Evolution 5(1): 31-44.
    History of the idea:
    Sagan, L. 1967. On the origin of mitosing cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology 14(3): 225-274.
    Oldest fossil appearances:
    Bengtson S, Sallstedt T,Belivanova V, Whitehouse M. 2017. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggest 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae. PLOS Biology 15(3): e2000735.
    Bengtson S, Rasmussen B, Ivarsson M, Muhling J, Broman C, Marone F, Stampononi M, Bekker A. 2017. Fungus-like mycelial fossils in 2.4-billion-year-old vesicular basalt. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1, Article number: 0141 (2017)
  • Ciencia y tecnologíaCiencia y tecnología

Comentarios • 862

  • TREV
    TREV Hace 10 horas

    We ABSOLUTELY LOVE PBS Eons!! Thank you so much for all the work you good folks put into it. Would you guy put the speakers name up on the screen a couple times during the video so we know who we’re listening to and a link to the behind the scenes crew as well? Thank you again!

  • Charly Petra
    Charly Petra Hace 13 horas

    How about a brief on microbes that may have altered the brain and the leap of brain power theory.

  • Little Geek
    Little Geek Hace 22 horas

    Hold up.

  • Joseph Westhill
    Joseph Westhill Hace un día

    2:45 I don't think the ribosome is an organelle

  • Friendly Machine
    Friendly Machine Hace un día

    A video on the evolution of metabolism would be nice.

    METTEWBA2BA Hace 4 días

    1:10 How do you know I'm not some prokaryote watching PBS Eons and typing on a keyboard?

  • tuck295q
    tuck295q Hace 5 días

    Mitochondrial eve anyone?

  • Jason J
    Jason J Hace 10 días

    Nah I'm to basic to be complex 😂😂

  • Buddha's Disciple
    Buddha's Disciple Hace 13 días


  • Matthew Harris
    Matthew Harris Hace 16 días

    All Eukaryotic cells also contain peroxisomes, which also might have been bacteria.

  • Stephen Marek
    Stephen Marek Hace 16 días

    One of the "prokaryotes" images sure looks like the filamentous fungus Curvularia

  • Vilhelmo De Okcidento
    Vilhelmo De Okcidento Hace 19 días

    Are the groups of yesterday are the individuals of today?

  • 羅百尉
    羅百尉 Hace 25 días

    A small error at 2:21, now we know that the larger one was an archaeon rather than a bacterium

  • Bernardo Jordan
    Bernardo Jordan Hace 25 días

    Bold of you to assume I'm not a prokaryote

  • Joao Rocha
    Joao Rocha Hace 26 días

    So my cells are all infected with mithocondria?

  • Steven DuVall
    Steven DuVall Hace 29 días


  • Shofiul Azam
    Shofiul Azam Hace un mes +1

    My all time fav video on youtube

  • Jacob Bagnall
    Jacob Bagnall Hace un mes

    The background music in this video was so cool . I think i have to watch again .

  • Morgan R
    Morgan R Hace un mes

    Adding to this... there is a theory that the nucleus itself evolved after an archaea and a megavirus merged. A lot of the evidence on this is that nucleic structure closely resembles a megavirus, but the transcription mechanisms come from the cell. Since such viruses aren't a lot smaller than the cell, just reproducing and killing the cell would be rather inefficient, since it would only get a couple copies that are now unprotected.
    It isn't certain yet, but it is notable that some of the larger megaviruses are about the size of an animal cell nucleus, and more primitive life such as bacteria and archaea don't have a nucleus (or other organelles, really).

  • Breezy Baby
    Breezy Baby Hace un mes

    You don't know me very well at all. I'm as prokaryotic as it gets. I'm basically E. Coli with a twist. Anybody trying to get infected tonight? 😉 My flagella isn't very big, but I know how to use it.

  • Tochtli
    Tochtli Hace un mes

    “Because you’re a eukaryote.”
    *Did you just assume my cell type?!*

  • Alex Ye
    Alex Ye Hace un mes

    3:05 Mitochondria create the majority of ATP, not all of it. Some ATP is formed in the cytosol by glycolysis.

  • Jonathon Frazier
    Jonathon Frazier Hace un mes

    seriously though, sounds like lichens.

  • Jonathon Frazier
    Jonathon Frazier Hace un mes +1

    how dare you presume I am a eukaryote!?!?yes I was born a eukaryote but I self identify as a prokaryote. this is hate speech! police! police!

  • Alex K
    Alex K Hace un mes

    7:25 that's a pretty big hurricane off the coast of Mexico..

  • Nicholas Crane
    Nicholas Crane Hace un mes

    I'm curious about animals going from land to sea and vise versa . . or if there is a species that has switch the most

  • Lee Siggens
    Lee Siggens Hace un mes

    An episode on theories of how multicellularity evolved would be nice. It's not totally understood but it seems like a good fit here.

  • bbababonbon..bonfire!
    bbababonbon..bonfire! Hace un mes

    So do scientists think that the human gut will also completely incorporate the gut bacteria in the distant future? Maybe that's what the next stage of human evolution is.

  • Ambergris
    Ambergris Hace un mes


  • Casey Ray Harris
    Casey Ray Harris Hace un mes

    I'd like to have a symbiotic relationship with her, I love it when she talks sexy!!

  • Joseph Liang
    Joseph Liang Hace un mes


  • Mahmoud Ali
    Mahmoud Ali Hace un mes

    What about the studies that suggest that the mitochondria receive genetic material from both parents not just maternal???

  • Ganesh Naik
    Ganesh Naik Hace un mes

    It is astonishing to know that we are a symbiotic colony.

  • Daniel Rayner
    Daniel Rayner Hace un mes +1

    This channel is brilliant

  • elikopo kopo
    elikopo kopo Hace un mes

    If cloroplasts are the plant ancestor , and the other one is the animal ancestor, where do the fungi fit in ?

    • 6026961
      6026961 Hace un mes

      elikopo kopo plants have mitochondria as well. Some fungi have chloroplasts too. The only major difference is the fungi cell wall.

  • Marta Cieślińska
    Marta Cieślińska Hace un mes

    “... you’re also more physically complex than procaryote. I mean, I haven’t met you, but I’m assuming you are” - that was beautiful hahaha
    Sometimes I feel that some people really don’t differ so much from procaryotes

  • MikeInHD
    MikeInHD Hace 2 meses

    I keep falling back on why. Why is life alive.

  • Jim Piaz
    Jim Piaz Hace 2 meses

    Hey guys. I had an idea for a good video. can you make a video from bacteria to trilobites. How did we get from bacteria to teeny little animals. Thanks guys.
    love your show.
    Jimmy. P.

  • tiffany norris
    tiffany norris Hace 2 meses +1

    Great stuff

  • ChipZilla69
    ChipZilla69 Hace 2 meses +1

    Longer videos please. Thumbs up

  • Aditya S
    Aditya S Hace 2 meses

    What about virus?

    • 6026961
      6026961 Hace un mes

      Aditya S they're not living things

  • Riza Uzumaki
    Riza Uzumaki Hace 2 meses

    Thanks a was a great help for my 2nd sem's Hons.2nd paper

  • Macks Power
    Macks Power Hace 2 meses

    They also form the basis for awesome series like Star Wars!

  • Sophie Nugre
    Sophie Nugre Hace 2 meses

    I thought this might be about the various steps of changes in the atmosphere brought on by our single felled friends. Endosymbiont theory was discussed one too many times during my education. I'm somewhat disappointed and have only my own expectations to blame.

  • Emmett Turner
    Emmett Turner Hace 2 meses

    A few questions:
    If our cells can’t reproduce organelles, where do they come from during our development from a sperm and egg cell? Are there the equivalent of stem cells for organelles in our eggs cells?
    Next, if it happened three times that we know of in Earth’s history then why do some seriously consider it as a potential “great filter” for galactic civilizations that we happened to cross? If it happened theee times that we know of then there are likely a couple more times it happened but failed to survive longer-term. Heck, we know organisms have joined forces for more complex multicellular life externally as well, with stuff like Portuguese Man-o-war, Lichen, sponges, etc, so it’s really not a leap to expect it to be common on a sub-cellular level as well.

  • Debopam Sil
    Debopam Sil Hace 2 meses

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts also possess 70S ribosomes, translation starts with formylmethionine, no introns in their DNA, and so on, just like prokaryotes. Mitochondria might probably have originated from purple sulfur bacteria.

  • Exo Research
    Exo Research Hace 2 meses

    So... I would imagine if it happened 3 times it is not an uncommon occurrence given enough time.

  • Exo Research
    Exo Research Hace 2 meses

    "Or the internet" 😂😂😂😂

  • Don't, Jim
    Don't, Jim Hace 2 meses

    Life is so crazy and complicated!

  • Ficco Clivano Ikhsan
    Ficco Clivano Ikhsan Hace 2 meses

    is this the only theory? are there any other?

  • Themba Mabona
    Themba Mabona Hace 2 meses

    Watching this as a Prokaryote must be very ambivalent watching this...

  • Andrean Romanky
    Andrean Romanky Hace 2 meses

    Their love is so strong that they defied death and still hold on until today.

  • Prayukth K V
    Prayukth K V Hace 2 meses

    Only primitive semi-alive unevolved unicellular simple life forms would have disliked this informative session

  • Brian Meyrick
    Brian Meyrick Hace 2 meses

    Well, don't that just beet all :-)

  • Alicorn Trash
    Alicorn Trash Hace 2 meses

    So we are part bacteria

  • Elasticgoons 25
    Elasticgoons 25 Hace 2 meses

    She roasted us at 1:21

  • Camille Chapeland
    Camille Chapeland Hace 2 meses

    Not a fan of the volume of the background music on this episode, it's a little bit distracting. Otherwise, this is my favorite ESclips channel! Thank you Steve🙏

  • Michael Finn
    Michael Finn Hace 2 meses

    Not all eukaryote need mitochondria for energy.

  • woloabel
    woloabel Hace 2 meses

    While the evidence for endosymbiosis is overwhelming and coherent, it is not conclusive of life itself. Just because the time involved and science drastically struggling to "see" at the molecular level, where all intelligence of life resides. If DNA was the pre-programmed instructions of life was are virus loooking very much life the elite or current computer programmers. The truth is panspermia has as much legitimacy in explaining life of today as an oppurtunistic self-assemblage of organisms. A virus is very much a precursor to both the prokaryote as the sophisticated eukaryote....cheerz

  • lisa
    lisa Hace 2 meses +1

    98 thumbs down from students forced to watch this for school😆🤣 But I 😁👍

  • Michaell Svendsen
    Michaell Svendsen Hace 2 meses

    Please stop playing the drums and music while speaking...

  • Herbert Spencer
    Herbert Spencer Hace 3 meses

    Sorry for being rude great discoverys love em do you

    FULANODETAL Hace 3 meses

    Its also callled MIDICLORIANS...young padawan

  • Rheiner Hiss
    Rheiner Hiss Hace 3 meses

    Mind blown.

  • rubiks6
    rubiks6 Hace 3 meses

    How lucky for us that the absorbed symbiont didn't reproduce a few times and burst out of the cellular membrane of the absorbing symbiont. Who'da thunk it?

  • Galileo De Leon
    Galileo De Leon Hace 3 meses

    So prokaryote is not where Evolution started, because inside a prokaryote is a DNA. Evolution must have started from the DNA. Where did the DNA come from? Wait, I thought bacteria only cause deceases? So, bacteria has the power to change an organism into a fish. I have been infected by viruses many times, i did not turn into a fish - yet.

  • DragonFire YT
    DragonFire YT Hace 3 meses

    *prokaryote watches*
    I'm not a eukaryote you stoop

  • Qwiet Ryott
    Qwiet Ryott Hace 3 meses

    Where did the Braid go ?? :*(

  • John Augsburger
    John Augsburger Hace 3 meses +1

    Thanks, that was cool.

  • Fracarmon
    Fracarmon Hace 3 meses

    A small correction to a very common mistake:
    Symbiosis doesn't mean that both organisms benefit from the relationship, it's just the existance of said relation. In Symbiosis you have 3 types of relation, Mutualism, where both organism benefit, Commensalism, where one organism benefit and the other is neither harmed nor helped, and Parasitism, where one organism (the host) is harmed to the benefit of the other (the parasite).

  • Michael Adam Reale
    Michael Adam Reale Hace 3 meses

    Life is amazing.

  • John Johansen
    John Johansen Hace 3 meses

    5:44 Two microbes bumped Into each other at a bar....

  • Mufaro Mandaza
    Mufaro Mandaza Hace 3 meses

    Wow beautiful video

  • Mufaro Mandaza
    Mufaro Mandaza Hace 3 meses

    How did the two cells managed to reproduce themselves as one?

  • mirzaakhmad khomidov
    mirzaakhmad khomidov Hace 4 meses

    I'm wondering that if all things contain with cell and bacteria and where did bacteria come from? 4 billion years ago, the earth was engulfed with rust and totally contained with iron as a whole. Scientists can't answer for all those questions because the answer is obvious.

  • innertubez
    innertubez Hace 4 meses

    I’m a semi-prokaryote

  • Benjamin Harman
    Benjamin Harman Hace 4 meses

    you are beautiful... fascinating, i have learnt so much from you guys

  • Pablo C
    Pablo C Hace 4 meses

    The microorganism that acquire the mitochondria was an Archaea, not a Bacteria (they are VERY different types of organisms).

  • Dakota Lee
    Dakota Lee Hace 4 meses

    Where do viruses come into play? Couldn't the nuclei be remains of some virophage infecting a giant virus? Or even some of the organelles like mitochondria?

  • Jamie Coyle
    Jamie Coyle Hace 4 meses

    Dont assume im complex life. I'm very simple. P.s If the chloroplasts did not go into cells there would be no plants, therefore no complex animal life and if the mitochondria didn't go into a cell there would be no complex life and this is so rare that it only ever happened three times. And two of those was plant related. Maybe we are the first, only or very rare complex life in the universe. And to get intelligent life after all this. Yet there have been no situations like asteroids, solar flares or tectonic problems too wipe all life out. Finally it was hard enough for the perfect ingredients to come randomly together to form the first cell let alone one that reproduces. lol
    Yep perfect grammar, btw im not fixing it.

  • Jonathan Fesmire, Steampunk Author

    Do you guys talk to astrophysicists? Because this could be another explanation for the Fermi paradox. Could it be that the chance of eukaryotic cells developing is so unlikely that the vast majority of planets with life only ever develop single-celled organisms, and that, because of this, advanced civilizations are so rare that it's likely we'll never find them?

  • Ashmeed Mohammed
    Ashmeed Mohammed Hace 4 meses

    Getting there is easy, staying there is hard.

  • Ashmeed Mohammed
    Ashmeed Mohammed Hace 4 meses

    Please do not assume my karyote

  • texabara
    texabara Hace 4 meses

    This are very specific factors.
    Even at Earth, there are organism that live and evolve in very specific places like many endemic species. I think, with the information we already have, that intelligent life is endemic of Earth. But any other kind of life may happen in many other forms and nature in other places in our galaxy and on the rest of the universe. Is life the only way that "matter" can act? What is the meaning or definition of "life"? Not even scientist are sure. Viruses are our own example. A virus is "alive"? Can 2 or a million different viruses interact to form a new "life" in a distant galaxy? 🤔

  • Ideoform Sun
    Ideoform Sun Hace 4 meses

    I wonder if mitochondria or similar bacteria are responsible for the heat generated by compost.

  • Ideoform Sun
    Ideoform Sun Hace 4 meses

    If you take an antibiotic, or eat food sprayed with it, and get lethargic, perhaps your mitochondria were weakened or killed by it.

  • Anarchy Antz
    Anarchy Antz Hace 4 meses

    Solar powered sugar factories. Reminds me what my niece and nephews were like during summer when they were younger.

  • Arduenn Schwartzman
    Arduenn Schwartzman Hace 4 meses

    There are many examples of organisms that currently undergo various stages of development into endosymbiosis. There are even cases of endoendosymbiosis and endoendoendosymbiosis.

  • Clessandra Pippenschnott
    Clessandra Pippenschnott Hace 4 meses +1

    Wow, there are some intelligent folks discussing awesome idea in the comments to this video. So refreshing!

  • Zacharie Richer
    Zacharie Richer Hace 4 meses

    Background song?

  • Mark Javier
    Mark Javier Hace 4 meses

    The strange thing about endosymbiosis is that mitochondria and chloroplasts can't survive outside of a cell. What triggered that shift from being an endosymbiont into becoming an organelle. It had to involved a change of cellular structure (for both organisms) and a change of DNA for the endosymbiont

  • Brenna Moyer
    Brenna Moyer Hace 4 meses +1

    That moment you realize you basically just watch fancy power point presentations in your spare time.

    Thanks so much for this video! Really, how do I study to do this type of job? Love everything you guys do!!! 💖💖💖
    I'd love to know, if it were possible, whether or not humans have evolved to eat meat... what an interesting story that would be! ✌💖🌱

  • Kirthik Raj
    Kirthik Raj Hace 5 meses


  • Connor Coulson
    Connor Coulson Hace 5 meses

    Cells within cells
    Cells interlinked

  • w0ttheh3ll
    w0ttheh3ll Hace 5 meses

    what about the nucleus?

  • James
    James Hace 5 meses +1

    These are really quality content. To the point and entertaining and instructive.

  • Deacon Verter
    Deacon Verter Hace 5 meses

    Our most destructive weaponry, was of no consequence. But
    just as we were facing ignominious defeat:
    three valiant warriors rose to our defense, the bac-
    terium, the virus and the - spirochete!
    Die, Martians!

  • Jim Mauch
    Jim Mauch Hace 5 meses

    Explain how archaea were discovered. While your at it explain what the heck they are.

  • nephie
    nephie Hace 5 meses +1

    The story of the separation of nucleid and mitochondrial DNA is one often exaggerated. Gene transfer between both is well known (i.e. and it has been shown again just this summer that both show signs of regulating each other (i.e. ) so the mitochondria are not as secluded inside the cell as some textbooks make you believe. Not to pass criticism on this great show, but a small fact that is often overlooked. Sorry for that smart-assing.

    • nephie
      nephie Hace 5 meses

      Might by possible. But think about doing it one single skin cell after the other. Might hurt after a while... ;)
      Better tread your gonads so that any possible future offspring can bath in the sun efficiently.

    • Deacon Verter
      Deacon Verter Hace 5 meses

      Thanks nephie. That's cool. My question is: can I CRISPR chloroplasts into my skin cells? Tan time!

  • Brian Cook
    Brian Cook Hace 5 meses

    Prokaryotes and eukaryotes? What happened to the archea?