How Two Microbes Changed History

  • Publicado el 15 ene 2018
  • What if I told you that, more than two billion years ago, some tiny living thing started to live inside another living thing … and never left? And now, the descendants of both of those things are in you?
    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios:
    Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet?
    Facebook -
    Twitter -
    Instagram -
    Chemical and membrane similarities between prokaryotes and organelles:
    Margolin W. 2005. FTSZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 6(11): 862-871.
    Wise RR, Hoober JK. 2007. Structure and function of plastids. Springer, Berlin. (Chapter 5)
    ISBN 9781402065705
    Zeth K, Thein M. 2010. Porins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common themes and variations. Biochemical Journal 431(1): 13-22.
    DOI: 10.1042/BJ20100371
    Fischer K, Weber A, Brink S, Arbinger B, Schünemann D, Borchert S, Heldt HW, Popp B, Link TA, Eckeskorn C, Flügge U-I. 1994. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two new members of the porin family. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269(41): 25754-25760.
    Fairman JW, Noinaj N, Buchanan SK. 2011. The structural biology of β-barrel membrane proteins: a summary of recent reports. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 21(4): 523-531.
    Mileykovskaya E, Dowhan W. 2009. Cardiolipin membrane domains in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 1788(10): 2084-2091.
    Organelle genomes, organelle dependence on the host cells:
    Timmis JN, Ayliffe MA, Huang CY, Martin W. 2004. Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes. Nature Reviews Genetics 5: 123-135.
    Andersson SGE, Zomorodipour A, Andersson JO, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Alsmark UCM, Podowski RM, Näslund AK, Eriksson A-S, Winkler HH, Kurland CG. 1998. The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria. Nature 396: 133-140.
    Stoebe B, Kowallik KV. 1999. Gene-cluster analysis in chloroplast genomics. Trends in Genetics 15, 344-347.
    Douglas A, Raven JA. 2003. Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles. Philosophical Transactions B 358(1429): 5-18.
    doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1188
    Dagan T, Roettger M, Stucken K, Landan G, Koch R, Major P, Gould SB, Goremykin VV, Rippka R, Tandeue de Marsac N, Gugger M, Lockhart PJ, Allen JF, Brune I, Maus I, Pühler A, Martin WF. 2013. Genomes of stigonematalean cyanobacteria (Subsection V) and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to plastids. Genome Biology and Evolution 5(1): 31-44.
    History of the idea:
    Sagan, L. 1967. On the origin of mitosing cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology 14(3): 225-274.
    Oldest fossil appearances:
    Bengtson S, Sallstedt T,Belivanova V, Whitehouse M. 2017. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggest 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae. PLOS Biology 15(3): e2000735.
    Bengtson S, Rasmussen B, Ivarsson M, Muhling J, Broman C, Marone F, Stampononi M, Bekker A. 2017. Fungus-like mycelial fossils in 2.4-billion-year-old vesicular basalt. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1, Article number: 0141 (2017)
  • Ciencia y tecnologíaCiencia y tecnología

Comentarios • 673

  • order_of_chaos
    order_of_chaos Hace 21 un hora

    So I am basically a walking mass of highly co-dependant bacteria. That's kind of awesome.

  • david smith
    david smith Hace 5 días

    This is a million times more amazing than the Bible's version of how life began. Another win for evolution, the evidence score is evolution countless to creationism ZERO

  • jeff sanz
    jeff sanz Hace 5 días

    one of my favorite channels too other than Kurzgesagt and this episode is amazing! keep making videos you guys!

  • Ralph Boots
    Ralph Boots Hace 6 días

    Even three times? I wasn't aware of the third time it happened.
    Question though, I understand the how, but why are the male mitochondrea excluded from the male gametes? What is the evolutionary benefit in that? Are there any species in which a cell has two mitochondrea, one from each parent? The last I doubt, but I wouldn't be surprised about either.

  • Novicelypro
    Novicelypro Hace 7 días +1

    Did you just assume I'm a Eukaryote? Ughh, organismist

  • Dan Vallentyne
    Dan Vallentyne Hace 7 días

    Was it a Bacteria that engulfed the mitochondrial progenitor or an archeon?

  • Paperclip
    Paperclip Hace 8 días

    We should spread microbes on all habitable planets with unmanned spaceshuttles. Hopefully some of them develop intelligence and in a few billion years when earth is gone the galaxy will be covered with life.

  • Tiberian Fiend
    Tiberian Fiend Hace 10 días

    What about peroxisomes?

  • Jim Bones
    Jim Bones Hace 15 días

    lets go live in a whale...see what science history we can make

  • Gestline Anurue
    Gestline Anurue Hace 17 días

    I wanna have the soundtrack for your vids. It's amazing

  • whodidit99
    whodidit99 Hace 18 días

    But how was mitochondria passed on ?

  • DoubleIrish DutchSandwich
    DoubleIrish DutchSandwich Hace 20 días +1

    This is one of the best videos I have seen. You provide background information, then explain the idea, then you explain the empirical evidence for the idea. Beautiful

  • Oh My Lord Taecyeon
    Oh My Lord Taecyeon Hace 24 días

    This one was much harder to follow than the others 🙂

  • Kody Gold
    Kody Gold Hace 24 días

    Hey guys, love the vids, but i haven't found one on the history of fungus As how they evolve. As a wannabe mycologist, i think it'd be really cool to hear your take about the rise of fungus and what they brought to the ecosystem, how they diversified so rapidly given they each require a specific growing medium, and what the introduction of fungus meant for plant and animal life in termsof evolution. Thanks!

  • magic reborn
    magic reborn Hace 27 días

    Did you just assume my cell type?😈😈

  • bram vergunst
    bram vergunst Hace 28 días

    Did you just assume my complexity?

  • Robert B
    Robert B Hace 28 días

    Way to assume the quality of my microscope.

  • DieFlabbergast
    DieFlabbergast Hace 29 días

    Seventy-one prokaryotes (thus far) disliked this video.

  • Fantastic Yeast
    Fantastic Yeast Hace 29 días

    please cover origin of sight on Earth. please please please.

  • Thomas ferris
    Thomas ferris Hace 29 días

    T H E M I T O C H O N D R I A I S T H E P O W E R H O U S E O F T H E C E L L

  • Karl Patrick Pacheco
    Karl Patrick Pacheco Hace un mes

    Amazing, I already knew it was mitochondria but the story is really cool

  • jamrenzee
    jamrenzee Hace un mes

    Don't know if it quite matches your theme, but could you do a video on what sort of fossils and remains humans will leave behind to possibly be found millions to billions of years later? Would you be able to tell how advanced human civilization was from its fossil record?

  • UltimoFox700
    UltimoFox700 Hace un mes +1

    Me liking this video tipped it to 7.7K likes. :)

  • Jerome Decock
    Jerome Decock Hace un mes

    Amazing and instructive video...I just understood the reason why children inherits mitochondria exclusively from their mother

  • Daemunum
    Daemunum Hace un mes

    1:31 did she just call my microscope cheap??

  • Orkhanius
    Orkhanius Hace un mes +1

    Beautiful video :)

  • Andre Abreu
    Andre Abreu Hace un mes

    Eukaryotes shall never kill and consume other eukaryotes.

  • waffleless
    waffleless Hace un mes

    Could we artificially create symbiosis between isolated cells and random bacteria?
    I want to see what that would do.

  • MrHuntervad
    MrHuntervad Hace un mes

    That was awesome! So that's why they needed another woman's egg cell, because the disease it had, they just changed the nucleus. This was a more in depth view.

  • David Herberger
    David Herberger Hace un mes

    I did not see any mention of Lynn Margulis who was at the forefront of the endosymbiotic cell theory.

  • Will Andersen
    Will Andersen Hace 2 meses

    Did anyone else notice Tully Monster at 6:44?

  • ChemikGN
    ChemikGN Hace 2 meses

    *Mitochondria is the power house of the (inhales) C E L L (exhales)*

  • Random Dude posting
    Random Dude posting Hace 2 meses

    I got a good video topic what was the first signs of viruses and what is there purpose in the ecosystem just curious.

  • mishael1
    mishael1 Hace 2 meses +1

    PBS Eons you got a major thing wrong. The consensus today is that the bigger single celled organism was Archea, while a Bacteria eventually became the mitochondria.

  • Field
    Field Hace 2 meses +1

    Awesome video! I can't get enough of this channel and the host is wearing such a great outfit in this one!

  • Ramsey Lee
    Ramsey Lee Hace 2 meses

    Let's include that in mitochondria and chloroplasts the chromosome is is circular like that in bacteria and these organelles divide by binary fission, again, as do bacteria. Also, the ribosomes in these organelles are of the 70S types, that bacteria have, not like our "main" ribosomes that are 80S types. And, when cultured out of a cell, mitochondria and chloroplasts are sensitive to the antagonistic effects of some antibiotics, again, like bacteria.
    Yes, I am a college biology instructor.

  • First Last
    First Last Hace 2 meses

    wait , so kelp have 2 kinds of chloroplasts?

  • Nolo Atmo
    Nolo Atmo Hace 2 meses

    Great video! She forgot to talk about the midi-chlorians, though. ;)

  • Madcircle Throughell
    Madcircle Throughell Hace 2 meses

    So milky way really is the star wars galaxy

  • Eco
    Eco Hace 2 meses

    I am totally human, I'm not a prokaryote *grins*

  • Ahmad Fauzi
    Ahmad Fauzi Hace 2 meses

    I wan't to ask. Is a protozoa is a animal anchestor? Why and when?

  • Brendan Carlton
    Brendan Carlton Hace 2 meses

    I want more Anomalocharis.

  • it me
    it me Hace 2 meses +2

    im just... in absolute awe that we are here. WE are here. thinking, feeling, asking questions. this is unbelievable.

  • ShadowDaPk
    ShadowDaPk Hace 2 meses

    Did they just assume my cellular complexity?

  • The Earth is Flat
    The Earth is Flat Hace 3 meses

    secondary endosymbiosis? wtf?

  • Marcel
    Marcel Hace 3 meses

    This made me wonder, can bacteria be parasitic too? Can single-cell organisms invade healthy cells and live in them for long periods of time without killing them?

  • Sambhranta Gupta
    Sambhranta Gupta Hace 3 meses

    I didn't knew a bit about this,that was a great information.

  • Alberto Adrián Schiano

    I also believe this.
    I imagine the efect of diferent bacterii living in proximity. And geting 'used' to consume what the ohers discarded. Something that occured for ages. At a point that they realized that they wouldn't make it without those other bacterii...
    So they decide to make a club called 'the cell'. And after recognizing that they didn't need anything else to evolve, the make this club a private one.
    So, welcome to Eucariotes!

  • Ethan Wagner
    Ethan Wagner Hace 3 meses

    Okay, so eukaryotes are the result of two organisms becoming one. Might it be possible for multicellular symbiotes to become so interdependent that they are considered one organism?

  • Trung Le
    Trung Le Hace 3 meses

    Wait. I was told that the host cell that take in the mitochondria is not a bacterium, but an archaea. The evidence is that we have similar cell wall structure and our enzymes are similar. I learned about it last year, so surely this infos could have been more thoroughly checked?

  • AvangionQ
    AvangionQ Hace 3 meses

    How many mass extinctions have there really been? There's more than the big five ...

  • Steve Sedio
    Steve Sedio Hace 3 meses

    Another fine example of paparallel evolution (another is the physical shape of wolves, hyena's and Tasmanian tigers, effective predators).
    With all this diversity of life, and lots of very diverse habitats. Why do we only have one DNA? It may be distributed in the cell differently, but it is all variations on the same chemistry. There has to be other combinations of chemicals that would have worked, is DNA that much better? Or, is life so difficult to form, that it takes a long time, and the first combination has time to occupy an entire planet before a second form even starts?

  • Kevin Zimmerman
    Kevin Zimmerman Hace 3 meses

    What happens if a cell splits without the mitochondria/chloroplast inside of it? Does it just die because it doesn't have the energy it needs?

  • LilyMyLolita
    LilyMyLolita Hace 3 meses +1

    This is is the most brilliant biology story I've listened to in my recent memory!

  • Kevin Byrne
    Kevin Byrne Hace 3 meses

    Credit where credit is due:
    Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

  • vanitystr
    vanitystr Hace 3 meses +1

    lol i have a finance exam tomorrow... but here i am watching vids about evolution

  • Leto85
    Leto85 Hace 3 meses +1

    I was looking at this video and got one question:
    How many cells working together in endosymbiosis does it take to create consciousness?

    • Kevin Zimmerman
      Kevin Zimmerman Hace 3 meses

      Go watch some vids on consciousness theories LOL Many people will argue (panpsychists, Orch OR, Phi) that the cells themselves are conscious on some level :)

  • wiadroman
    wiadroman Hace 3 meses

    "You are also more complex than bacteria, I haven't met you but am assuming you are". Well, you don't know how primitive I am.

  • Bleikr Sound
    Bleikr Sound Hace 3 meses

    Theistic Evolution - the belief that life is a result of a universal law of physics, and that there is a single driving force that set these laws into motion.

  • Cynthia Brown
    Cynthia Brown Hace 4 meses

    I Want To Know How Plants Were Made.

  • Billy Quino McCreery
    Billy Quino McCreery Hace 4 meses

    It would be really cool if every time they showed the earth on Eons it was the earth of the time period they were discussing with the landmasses and oceans where they would be

  • twodayoldbagel
    twodayoldbagel Hace 4 meses

    How did dodos evolve? What were their lives like? How did they go extinct?

  • DKforever24
    DKforever24 Hace 4 meses

    But I don't identify as a Eukaryote. . .

  • Matthew .S
    Matthew .S Hace 4 meses

    Small detail, but as I understand it the evidence stronger supports a bacterium being engulfed into an archaea . But i can understand not wanting to explain archaea

  • Marijan Desin
    Marijan Desin Hace 4 meses

    I wonder why did animal cells develop fast paced movement and plant cells are so slow?

  • Thumbs Up Guy
    Thumbs Up Guy Hace 4 meses +1

    This is so beautiful, thank you for helping to understand connection between all living things.

  • Ossy Koi
    Ossy Koi Hace 4 meses

    This is essentially a lecture at university

  • EE Ehrenberg
    EE Ehrenberg Hace 4 meses

    Fun fact: Mitochondria is only passed on from the mother, not the father, so mitochondria DNA can be used to trace matroliniar ancestry.

  • Hamyield
    Hamyield Hace 4 meses

    Can you do mini series on each geological era focusing on what the earth looked like then, and why it resulted in the geology it does today? For example, in the UK our Ordovician geology is totally different (our rock formations are almost entirely volcanic in that period), but in the US the same period is broadly thought of as being sedimentary/sea bed type strata. Each of the geological periods have an interesting story to tell from the physical geology, not just the life forms (interesting though that is). Would love to see more on this.

  • Brooke Console
    Brooke Console Hace 4 meses


  • Matthew Goodman
    Matthew Goodman Hace 4 meses

    That funky music :)

  • Draxis32
    Draxis32 Hace 4 meses

    It was most likely an Archea eating up a bacteria. In 2015 a paper showed that it found a deep sea Archea that had the what scientists called "Eukaryote genes", that were exclusively found in Eukaryotes only. Note that, for long we've known that Archea and Eukaryotes have very similar DNA replicating proteins, that are significantly different than Bacteria.
    In this paper is also shown that the genes are so perfectly lined up that is very unlikely this genetic material came "sideways" i.e was gobbled up by the Archea somewhere.

  • The Grim Reaper
    The Grim Reaper Hace 4 meses

    Still a better love story than Twilight !

  • Tyrannasaur Russ
    Tyrannasaur Russ Hace 4 meses

    So...I won't claim to know a lot about chemistry, but I do know that it is messy. They always make it seem like it was a single organism crawling and living inside of another single organism but it seems more likely to my layman brain that this was happening with lots of the little guys all over the place and the ones that worked the best survived and procreated, making all of us.

  • Marzhew Mars
    Marzhew Mars Hace 4 meses

    Do more plant related topic please!

  • Rayzor Ray
    Rayzor Ray Hace 4 meses

    “The Powerhouse Of The Cell”, Lol . I remember being at school and if you learnt this then you basically just passed your exam .

    ALAAP SARKAR Hace 4 meses +1

    One of the best videos on this channel.

  • John C.
    John C. Hace 4 meses

    We could have been plant people, taking in energy from the sun

  • TheBubbalubba12
    TheBubbalubba12 Hace 4 meses

    Did she just assume my microbes?

  • David Jordan
    David Jordan Hace 4 meses

    She just flamed us, " I haven't meet you but I assume you are" ....

  • UlaisisP
    UlaisisP Hace 4 meses +1

    I'm so glad you did this episode, I asked for it and I got it (I`m not saying you did it for me, but who knows, maybe you read my comment and it started something). I think this is the greatest event in our life history (I only knew two events, and now I know it happened three times. You did a good job on this topic.

  • J D3
    J D3 Hace 4 meses +1

    I'm so glad you talked about the endosymbiosis theory. However will someone explain to me how linear, non-circular DNA evolved in eukaryotes?

  • mXrtin100
    mXrtin100 Hace 4 meses +1

    I love this channel ❤ makes all those tedious biology lectures back in school relatable

  • batsrcuter
    batsrcuter Hace 4 meses +1

    Thank you! Not sure if it was the request I made two weeks ago for this topic but well done. Will be adding it to my history of earth prezi for next year.

  • MrGuesp
    MrGuesp Hace 4 meses

    I want to learn more deeply about how fossils form!

  • rJaune
    rJaune Hace 4 meses

    I'd like to learn more about the mammals and reptiles that were around at the same time as the dinosaurs. This series is amazing!

  • The Piesorna arts
    The Piesorna arts Hace 4 meses +1

    Education can be entertaining

  • Cleiton Oliveira
    Cleiton Oliveira Hace 5 meses

    Her voice is so comfy and sexy.

  • Блядь Россия

    Nice to see some exposure of modern biology for a change. Too much of what passes for educational material in video media is there just to reinforce people’s biases formed from 300 year old notions that have thoroughly debunked with the advent of molecular biological tools. *cough* David Attenborough *cough*

  • Kathy Fausett
    Kathy Fausett Hace 5 meses

    Symbiosis of this kind is a great model for win-win games, rather than the usual zero sum games that we are accustomed to.

  • Zom Bee Nature
    Zom Bee Nature Hace 5 meses

    What if you took an anti-Rickettsial drug, would it "cure" you of your mitochondria? You would be dead of course, but would that get rid of mitochondria?

  • Remberto Adam Belcourt
    Remberto Adam Belcourt Hace 5 meses +1

    This is absolutely amazing! Thank you very much for this video!

  • MissPronounced
    MissPronounced Hace 5 meses +2

    I dont believe in "coincidences" or "chance"; my perspective is that there is a great design to life on earth. None of us exist on accident.

    • Mrfox aos
      Mrfox aos Hace 4 meses

      see thats what great about facts it doesnt matter what idiots like you think facts are still true and you're wrong

    • Daniel Brownson
      Daniel Brownson Hace 5 meses

      Everything is an accident. I don't want to believe in any design cruel enough to have produced the world as it is.

  • sah
    sah Hace 5 meses +1

    wwwoooooo mind blown

  • asiburger
    asiburger Hace 5 meses +1

    I remember learning this in Biology classes. It was awfully unstructured and carried little to no explanation on how things got together, what the differences are broken down to a simple level and just without alot of info around it.
    This right here should be mandatory footage for any school, since it is so comprehensive and easy to actually UNDERSTAND, rather than just learn a set ammount of random facts, without giving their meaning in the big picture. It was just so distant from any relationship with real life.

  • Zhen the swag Hen
    Zhen the swag Hen Hace 5 meses

    Can you recreate this

    • IamTenzin
      IamTenzin Hace 5 meses

      Happening now naturally in Hatena arenicola.

  • Carlos Carreño
    Carlos Carreño Hace 5 meses +1

    you guys just earned a new subscriber, this was very interesting

  • Andy Machala
    Andy Machala Hace 5 meses

    I thought you were going to say sexual reproduction. That's almost as basic I would think.

  • Alex Kim
    Alex Kim Hace 5 meses

    Written and presented so eloquently ~ yet a bit intensely.. loved this educational snippet!

  • Susan Garry
    Susan Garry Hace 5 meses

    A video about the platypus would be very interesting!