How Two Microbes Changed History

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  • Publicado el 15 ene 2018
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    What if I told you that, more than two billion years ago, some tiny living thing started to live inside another living thing … and never left? And now, the descendants of both of those things are in you?
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    References:
    Chemical and membrane similarities between prokaryotes and organelles:
    Margolin W. 2005. FTSZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 6(11): 862-871.
    doi:10.1038/nrm1745
    Wise RR, Hoober JK. 2007. Structure and function of plastids. Springer, Berlin. (Chapter 5)
    ISBN 9781402065705
    Zeth K, Thein M. 2010. Porins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common themes and variations. Biochemical Journal 431(1): 13-22.
    DOI: 10.1042/BJ20100371
    Fischer K, Weber A, Brink S, Arbinger B, Schünemann D, Borchert S, Heldt HW, Popp B, Link TA, Eckeskorn C, Flügge U-I. 1994. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two new members of the porin family. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269(41): 25754-25760.
    www.jbc.org/content/269/41/25754.long
    Fairman JW, Noinaj N, Buchanan SK. 2011. The structural biology of β-barrel membrane proteins: a summary of recent reports. Current Opinion in Structural Biology 21(4): 523-531.
    doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2011.05.005
    Mileykovskaya E, Dowhan W. 2009. Cardiolipin membrane domains in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 1788(10): 2084-2091.
    doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2009.04.003
    Organelle genomes, organelle dependence on the host cells:
    Timmis JN, Ayliffe MA, Huang CY, Martin W. 2004. Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes. Nature Reviews Genetics 5: 123-135.
    doi:10.1038/nrg1271
    Andersson SGE, Zomorodipour A, Andersson JO, Sicheritz-Pontén T, Alsmark UCM, Podowski RM, Näslund AK, Eriksson A-S, Winkler HH, Kurland CG. 1998. The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria. Nature 396: 133-140.
    doi:10.1038/24094
    Stoebe B, Kowallik KV. 1999. Gene-cluster analysis in chloroplast genomics. Trends in Genetics 15, 344-347.
    dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9525(99)01815-6
    Douglas A, Raven JA. 2003. Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles. Philosophical Transactions B 358(1429): 5-18.
    doi: 10.1098/rstb.2002.1188
    Dagan T, Roettger M, Stucken K, Landan G, Koch R, Major P, Gould SB, Goremykin VV, Rippka R, Tandeue de Marsac N, Gugger M, Lockhart PJ, Allen JF, Brune I, Maus I, Pühler A, Martin WF. 2013. Genomes of stigonematalean cyanobacteria (Subsection V) and the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to plastids. Genome Biology and Evolution 5(1): 31-44.
    doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evs117
    History of the idea:
    Sagan, L. 1967. On the origin of mitosing cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology 14(3): 225-274.
    doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(67)90079-3
    Oldest fossil appearances:
    Bengtson S, Sallstedt T,Belivanova V, Whitehouse M. 2017. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggest 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae. PLOS Biology 15(3): e2000735.
    doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2000735
    Bengtson S, Rasmussen B, Ivarsson M, Muhling J, Broman C, Marone F, Stampononi M, Bekker A. 2017. Fungus-like mycelial fossils in 2.4-billion-year-old vesicular basalt. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1, Article number: 0141 (2017)
    doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0141
  • Ciencia y tecnologíaCiencia y tecnología

Comentarios • 702

  • FULANODETAL
    FULANODETAL Hace un día

    Its also callled MIDICLORIANS...young padawan

  • Rheiner Hiss
    Rheiner Hiss Hace 4 días

    Mind blown.

  • rubiks6
    rubiks6 Hace 8 días

    How lucky for us that the absorbed symbiont didn't reproduce a few times and burst out of the cellular membrane of the absorbing symbiont. Who'da thunk it?

  • Galileo De Leon
    Galileo De Leon Hace 9 días

    So prokaryote is not where Evolution started, because inside a prokaryote is a DNA. Evolution must have started from the DNA. Where did the DNA come from? Wait, I thought bacteria only cause deceases? So, bacteria has the power to change an organism into a fish. I have been infected by viruses many times, i did not turn into a fish - yet.

  • gabriella felicia
    gabriella felicia Hace 10 días

    *prokaryote watches*
    I'm not a eukaryote you stoop

  • Qwiet Ryott
    Qwiet Ryott Hace 10 días

    Where did the Braid go ?? :*(

  • John Augsburger
    John Augsburger Hace 13 días +1

    Thanks, that was cool.

  • CMDR Skudr
    CMDR Skudr Hace 19 días

    A small correction to a very common mistake:
    Symbiosis doesn't mean that both organisms benefit from the relationship, it's just the existance of said relation. In Symbiosis you have 3 types of relation, Mutualism, where both organism benefit, Commensalism, where one organism benefit and the other is neither harmed nor helped, and Parasitism, where one organism (the host) is harmed to the benefit of the other (the parasite).

  • Michael Adam Reale
    Michael Adam Reale Hace 20 días

    Life is amazing.

  • John Johansen
    John Johansen Hace 21 un día

    5:44 Two microbes bumped Into each other at a bar....

  • Mufaro Mandaza
    Mufaro Mandaza Hace 21 un día

    Wow beautiful video

  • Mufaro Mandaza
    Mufaro Mandaza Hace 21 un día

    How did the two cells managed to reproduce themselves as one?

  • mirzaakhmad khomidov
    mirzaakhmad khomidov Hace 22 días

    I'm wondering that if all things contain with cell and bacteria and where did bacteria come from? 4 billion years ago, the earth was engulfed with rust and totally contained with iron as a whole. Scientists can't answer for all those questions because the answer is obvious.

  • innertubez
    innertubez Hace 23 días

    I’m a semi-prokaryote

  • Benjamin  Harman
    Benjamin Harman Hace 25 días

    you are beautiful... fascinating, i have learnt so much from you guys

  • Pablo C
    Pablo C Hace 26 días

    The microorganism that acquire the mitochondria was an Archaea, not a Bacteria (they are VERY different types of organisms).

  • Dakota Lee
    Dakota Lee Hace 26 días

    Where do viruses come into play? Couldn't the nuclei be remains of some virophage infecting a giant virus? Or even some of the organelles like mitochondria?

  • Jamie Coyle
    Jamie Coyle Hace 27 días

    Dont assume im complex life. I'm very simple. P.s If the chloroplasts did not go into cells there would be no plants, therefore no complex animal life and if the mitochondria didn't go into a cell there would be no complex life and this is so rare that it only ever happened three times. And two of those was plant related. Maybe we are the first, only or very rare complex life in the universe. And to get intelligent life after all this. Yet there have been no situations like asteroids, solar flares or tectonic problems too wipe all life out. Finally it was hard enough for the perfect ingredients to come randomly together to form the first cell let alone one that reproduces. lol
    Yep perfect grammar, btw im not fixing it.

  • Jonathan Fesmire, Steampunk Author

    Do you guys talk to astrophysicists? Because this could be another explanation for the Fermi paradox. Could it be that the chance of eukaryotic cells developing is so unlikely that the vast majority of planets with life only ever develop single-celled organisms, and that, because of this, advanced civilizations are so rare that it's likely we'll never find them?

  • Ashmeed Mohammed
    Ashmeed Mohammed Hace un mes

    Getting there is easy, staying there is hard.

  • Ashmeed Mohammed
    Ashmeed Mohammed Hace un mes

    Please do not assume my karyote

  • texabara
    texabara Hace un mes

    This are very specific factors.
    Even at Earth, there are organism that live and evolve in very specific places like many endemic species. I think, with the information we already have, that intelligent life is endemic of Earth. But any other kind of life may happen in many other forms and nature in other places in our galaxy and on the rest of the universe. Is life the only way that "matter" can act? What is the meaning or definition of "life"? Not even scientist are sure. Viruses are our own example. A virus is "alive"? Can 2 or a million different viruses interact to form a new "life" in a distant galaxy? 🤔

  • Ideoform Sun
    Ideoform Sun Hace un mes

    I wonder if mitochondria or similar bacteria are responsible for the heat generated by compost.

  • Ideoform Sun
    Ideoform Sun Hace un mes

    If you take an antibiotic, or eat food sprayed with it, and get lethargic, perhaps your mitochondria were weakened or killed by it.

  • Anarchy Antz
    Anarchy Antz Hace un mes

    Solar powered sugar factories. Reminds me what my niece and nephews were like during summer when they were younger.

  • Arduenn Schwartzman
    Arduenn Schwartzman Hace un mes

    There are many examples of organisms that currently undergo various stages of development into endosymbiosis. There are even cases of endoendosymbiosis and endoendoendosymbiosis.

  • Clessandra Pippenschnott
    Clessandra Pippenschnott Hace un mes +1

    Wow, there are some intelligent folks discussing awesome idea in the comments to this video. So refreshing!

  • ZacxRicher
    ZacxRicher Hace un mes

    Background song?

  • Mark Javier
    Mark Javier Hace un mes

    The strange thing about endosymbiosis is that mitochondria and chloroplasts can't survive outside of a cell. What triggered that shift from being an endosymbiont into becoming an organelle. It had to involved a change of cellular structure (for both organisms) and a change of DNA for the endosymbiont

  • Brenna Moyer
    Brenna Moyer Hace un mes +1

    That moment you realize you basically just watch fancy power point presentations in your spare time.

    Thanks so much for this video! Really, how do I study to do this type of job? Love everything you guys do!!! 💖💖💖
    I'd love to know, if it were possible, whether or not humans have evolved to eat meat... what an interesting story that would be! ✌💖🌱

  • Kirthik Raj
    Kirthik Raj Hace un mes

    Wow

  • Connor Coulson
    Connor Coulson Hace 2 meses

    Cells within cells
    Cells interlinked

  • w0ttheh3ll
    w0ttheh3ll Hace 2 meses

    what about the nucleus?

  • James
    James Hace 2 meses +1

    These are really quality content. To the point and entertaining and instructive.

  • Deacon Verter
    Deacon Verter Hace 2 meses

    Our most destructive weaponry, was of no consequence. But
    just as we were facing ignominious defeat:
    three valiant warriors rose to our defense, the bac-
    terium, the virus and the - spirochete!
    Die, Martians!

  • Jim Mauch
    Jim Mauch Hace 2 meses

    Explain how archaea were discovered. While your at it explain what the heck they are.

  • nephie
    nephie Hace 2 meses +1

    The story of the separation of nucleid and mitochondrial DNA is one often exaggerated. Gene transfer between both is well known (i.e. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1456839/) and it has been shown again just this summer that both show signs of regulating each other (i.e. www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(18)30390-5 ) so the mitochondria are not as secluded inside the cell as some textbooks make you believe. Not to pass criticism on this great show, but a small fact that is often overlooked. Sorry for that smart-assing.

    • nephie
      nephie Hace 2 meses

      Might by possible. But think about doing it one single skin cell after the other. Might hurt after a while... ;)
      Better tread your gonads so that any possible future offspring can bath in the sun efficiently.

    • Deacon Verter
      Deacon Verter Hace 2 meses

      Thanks nephie. That's cool. My question is: can I CRISPR chloroplasts into my skin cells? Tan time!

  • Brian Cook
    Brian Cook Hace 2 meses

    Prokaryotes and eukaryotes? What happened to the archea?

  • Stephen Hazel
    Stephen Hazel Hace 2 meses

    more about cells please :))))))

  • 1001 10111011
    1001 10111011 Hace 2 meses

    If you can't explain it then I don't have to believe it. In fact, we shouldn't believe it until you can prove it.

    • 1001 10111011
      1001 10111011 Hace 2 meses +1

      Don't you listen to these Un-scientific dumb dumbs, 1001. You keep demanding that science and scientists back up their claims with facts and evidence and sooner or later we'll get to the truth. It may take a while, but we'll get there. After all, there are no shortcuts just lots of hard work.

    • Deacon Verter
      Deacon Verter Hace 2 meses

      1001, you're so dumb. I believe L.A. will not be struck by a major earthquake in the next month. I believe the Cleveland Browns will not win the 2019 Superbowl. I believe there's no Bigfoot. I believe I will not die tonight. I can't prove any of those beliefs _but they are still rational beliefs._ Get a clue.

    • classicrockcafe
      classicrockcafe Hace 2 meses +1

      I DO believe it. I have faith.

  • Boris Chan
    Boris Chan Hace 2 meses

    there are single cell sea creatures that hunt algae when they are born, and when they swallow one, the algae is unharmed and the cell behave change to more plant like. This might remnant of evolutionary past

  • Peter Wexler
    Peter Wexler Hace 2 meses

    Built into the design of the Universe is the chance encounter.

  • Reza Achmadi
    Reza Achmadi Hace 3 meses

    Wow

  • Baruch Ben-David
    Baruch Ben-David Hace 3 meses

    So two microbes fuse into one. How do they reproduce? Host cell splits. What happens to the guest? What would make the two microbes split at the same time?

  • Salkafar
    Salkafar Hace 3 meses

    #Lynn Margulis.

  • Stratokrat
    Stratokrat Hace 3 meses

    I can't check out SpaceTime. SpaceTime brought me here.

  • blueckaym
    blueckaym Hace 3 meses

    I still didn't get two things:
    1) How the Eukaryote and its symbiotic bacteria got to procreate more or less proportionally (I understand that randomly some new cells would have more, less or none of the new Mitochondrion for example. But my question is how it came to the current state that is no longer chance dependent?)
    2) How exactly Mitochondrion allowed higher complexity of the living organisms? I understand they play vital role as energy factories, which would make the host cells stronger and survive more often. But that could easily mean they'll procreate more (as in more single-cell organisms) rather than evolve higher complexity (ie multi-cell organisms).
    Could you elaborate on these two topics?

    • blueckaym
      blueckaym Hace 3 meses

      Thanks for the answers!
      About the 2nd one - I understand how ordered natural selection can promote the successful random combinations, but I wanted to get an idea how the process actually happened - like if you had to reproduce it :)
      My point is (besides curiosity of course) is that if we understand this process perhaps we can reproduce it with synthetic/robotics. Because designing and producing simpler machines, that are capable of combining into more complex ones for a given purpose can be very efficient.
      Think from nanobots to Von Neumann probes.
      So if by random chance complex multi-cell organisms appeared and prospered, which is understandable given enough time and activity. Then similar to the 1st question - how did they stabilize their form or symbiotic existence so that it can evolve further instead of dying of with the next generation.
      Just statistic and chance don't seem enough to me , or such stable multi-cellular forms won't exists for long and certainly not in such great variety.
      Obviously the great variety is strong indicator of the numerous re-combinations that have happened until successful complex organisms persisted. But if it was just that, today we would see lots of spontaneous deconstruction of complex forms just as randomly.
      Here's an example that I learned of recently - dictyostelium (from Joe Hanson: esclips.com/video/K8HEDqoTPgk/vídeo.html), which seems to manifests both simple single-cell form, and when necessary combine forces and travel as a multi-cell organism. Such processes can't be explained with selective randomness alone. They hint at some greater (even if hidder) design.
      So that trigger to higher-complexity (or vice versa) is what I'm really interested.

    • Bogwedgle
      Bogwedgle Hace 3 meses

      1) At first it's certainly possible that the amount of mitochondria in a cell was pretty random, but as the relationship evolved, those mitochondria that reproduced closer to the perfect number where they produced enough energy but didn't consume all of the host cells resources would have been more likely to survive and reproduce along with their host cell, so they'd naturally gravitate towards that balance.
      2) Some eukaryotes went one way, others went the other way, both have their pros and cons but as you can see today both single celled and multi-cellular eukaryotes were wildly successful in their own way. Evolution rarely only chooses one path to success when multiple are available.

  • The31st
    The31st Hace 3 meses

    havent watched yet. If the answer is chloroplasts and "the powerhouse of the cell" then...I guess I win

  • pinkgalah
    pinkgalah Hace 3 meses +1

    This is what i needed in my bilogy exam

  • Listen The Shadow
    Listen The Shadow Hace 3 meses

    The original host would've actually been an archaeon, however. It's a very common mistake, and I can't blame you guys. You all know more than me, though, so please, feel free to correct me.

  • ASHLEY COFFELL
    ASHLEY COFFELL Hace 3 meses

    Thanks for assuming we all use cheap microscopes hahaha

  • Charley Wymore
    Charley Wymore Hace 4 meses +1

    What if I told you that there was a meme at the beginning of this video?

  • TharrisNogaud
    TharrisNogaud Hace 4 meses +1

    Yes! Well done! Beautifully presented it is an elegant saga in which we all continue to play a role in Life's continual Evolution!

  • Nic
    Nic Hace 4 meses

    "One bacterium started living within another larger bacterium." I though eukaryotes were more related to archaea.

  • Lowie Dewind
    Lowie Dewind Hace 4 meses

    DID U JUST ASSUME MY PHYSICAL COMPLEXITY

  • Collin Bybee
    Collin Bybee Hace 4 meses

    Did she just assume my complexity?

  • Gneo Salen
    Gneo Salen Hace 4 meses

    Darkkmane anyone? MITOCHONDRIA.

  • klyana130
    klyana130 Hace 4 meses +1

    THIS IS THE REALITY SCIENCE for the FANTASY SCIFI BASIS OF GEORGE LUCAS' MIDICHLORIANS!! THAT CAN CHANNEL 'the Force' ENERGY form in that galaxy lifeforms in addition to electromagnetic solar or chemical foods.! And Different Star Wars species have higher or stronger concentrations in their cells from evolution but can TRAIN (Jedi/Sith) to use them better like athletics in real life end up with higher mitochondria counts in muscle cells for energy.

  • Hu Sheng Vang
    Hu Sheng Vang Hace 4 meses

    my mind is blown

  • Sam Haines
    Sam Haines Hace 4 meses +1

    another excellent video! like to know more about archaea and giant viruses please

  • b1itsjustme
    b1itsjustme Hace 4 meses

    wow, thanks

  • blueshifter
    blueshifter Hace 5 meses

    Why didn't you mention that the endosymbiotic host was probably an archaea?

  • Dekus4life
    Dekus4life Hace 5 meses

    Poor mitochondria :( getting locked up and having its children forced to work in a labor camp (cell) One like equals one freed mitochondria

  • Kevin Byrne
    Kevin Byrne Hace 5 meses

    What do I want to know about?
    The role of endogenous retroviruses in the evolution of life on Earth.

  • RagingBubuli
    RagingBubuli Hace 5 meses

    What if we GMO mice to have Chloroplast?

  • Fred Bruche
    Fred Bruche Hace 5 meses

    Another example of secondary endosymbiosis (not ubiquitous as the ones presented here though) is the apicoplast organelle of protozoan parasites. Just to make the point that it happened also in eucaryotes that remained small :)

  • Eukleides K
    Eukleides K Hace 5 meses

    Is there an evolutionary explanation for multi-nucleate cells, like myocytes? And, are there other examples? They just seem so weird!

  • G Gentry
    G Gentry Hace 5 meses

    I understand how a larger cell can capture a smaller bacterium cell but how does the dna from both cells fuse so that a daughter cell is created that is a single unit of the larger cell with mitochondria? Simply a larger cell capturing a smaller one wouldn’t necessarily mean an integrated future cell. Or does it work like when the larger cell is ready to divide, the smaller one divides as well so eukaryotes actually have multiple divisions within the greater overall division?

  • Bel Rick
    Bel Rick Hace 5 meses

    All living things on earth are made of cells? No. Not at all. Cells ARE the living things. Life as you call it are rather COLONIES of living things.

  • joey flores
    joey flores Hace 5 meses +1

    This channel is seriously amazing.

  • Jairo Fonseca
    Jairo Fonseca Hace 5 meses +1

    Great, I learned more with this 8 min video than all my biology class in high school.

  • Sjwaria Law
    Sjwaria Law Hace 5 meses

    DO NOT ASSUME MY COMPLEXITY WAMEN!! ;)


    Great video!

  • GnR !!!
    GnR !!! Hace 5 meses

    I would really enjoy a video on junk Dna and what it consists of (retroviruses, transposable elements etc)

  • order_of_chaos
    order_of_chaos Hace 5 meses

    So I am basically a walking mass of highly co-dependant bacteria. That's kind of awesome.

  • david smith
    david smith Hace 5 meses

    This is a million times more amazing than the Bible's version of how life began. Another win for evolution, the evidence score is evolution countless to creationism ZERO

  • jeff sanz
    jeff sanz Hace 5 meses

    one of my favorite channels too other than Kurzgesagt and this episode is amazing! keep making videos you guys!

  • Ralph Boots
    Ralph Boots Hace 5 meses

    Even three times? I wasn't aware of the third time it happened.
    Question though, I understand the how, but why are the male mitochondrea excluded from the male gametes? What is the evolutionary benefit in that? Are there any species in which a cell has two mitochondrea, one from each parent? The last I doubt, but I wouldn't be surprised about either.

  • Novicelypro
    Novicelypro Hace 5 meses +1

    Did you just assume I'm a Eukaryote? Ughh, organismist

  • Dan Vallentyne
    Dan Vallentyne Hace 5 meses

    Was it a Bacteria that engulfed the mitochondrial progenitor or an archeon?

  • Paperclip
    Paperclip Hace 5 meses

    We should spread microbes on all habitable planets with unmanned spaceshuttles. Hopefully some of them develop intelligence and in a few billion years when earth is gone the galaxy will be covered with life.

  • Jim Bones
    Jim Bones Hace 6 meses

    lets go live in a whale...see what science history we can make

  • Gestline Anurue
    Gestline Anurue Hace 6 meses

    I wanna have the soundtrack for your vids. It's amazing

  • whodidit99
    whodidit99 Hace 6 meses

    But how was mitochondria passed on ?

  • DoubleIrish DutchSandwich
    DoubleIrish DutchSandwich Hace 6 meses +1

    This is one of the best videos I have seen. You provide background information, then explain the idea, then you explain the empirical evidence for the idea. Beautiful

  • Oh My Lord Taecyeon
    Oh My Lord Taecyeon Hace 6 meses

    This one was much harder to follow than the others 🙂

  • Kody Gold
    Kody Gold Hace 6 meses

    Hey guys, love the vids, but i haven't found one on the history of fungus As how they evolve. As a wannabe mycologist, i think it'd be really cool to hear your take about the rise of fungus and what they brought to the ecosystem, how they diversified so rapidly given they each require a specific growing medium, and what the introduction of fungus meant for plant and animal life in termsof evolution. Thanks!

  • magic reborn
    magic reborn Hace 6 meses

    Did you just assume my cell type?😈😈

  • bram vergunst
    bram vergunst Hace 6 meses

    Did you just assume my complexity?

  • Robert B
    Robert B Hace 6 meses

    Way to assume the quality of my microscope.

  • Fantastic Yeast
    Fantastic Yeast Hace 6 meses

    please cover origin of sight on Earth. please please please.

  • Thomas ferris
    Thomas ferris Hace 6 meses

    T H E M I T O C H O N D R I A I S T H E P O W E R H O U S E O F T H E C E L L

  • Karl Patrick Pacheco
    Karl Patrick Pacheco Hace 6 meses

    Amazing, I already knew it was mitochondria but the story is really cool

  • jamrenzee
    jamrenzee Hace 6 meses

    Don't know if it quite matches your theme, but could you do a video on what sort of fossils and remains humans will leave behind to possibly be found millions to billions of years later? Would you be able to tell how advanced human civilization was from its fossil record?

  • UltimoFox700
    UltimoFox700 Hace 6 meses +1

    Me liking this video tipped it to 7.7K likes. :)

  • Jerome Decock
    Jerome Decock Hace 6 meses

    Amazing and instructive video...I just understood the reason why children inherits mitochondria exclusively from their mother

  • Daemunum
    Daemunum Hace 7 meses

    1:31 did she just call my microscope cheap??

  • khanius
    khanius Hace 7 meses +1

    Beautiful video :)

  • Andre Abreu
    Andre Abreu Hace 7 meses

    Eukaryotes shall never kill and consume other eukaryotes.

  • waffleless
    waffleless Hace 7 meses

    Could we artificially create symbiosis between isolated cells and random bacteria?
    I want to see what that would do.

  • MrHuntervad
    MrHuntervad Hace 7 meses

    That was awesome! So that's why they needed another woman's egg cell, because the disease it had, they just changed the nucleus. This was a more in depth view.