How the Squid Lost Its Shell

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  • Publicado el 17 abr 2018
  • Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 馃槂) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateEONS
    The ancestors of modern, squishy cephalopods like the octopus and the squid all had shells. In ancient times, their shell was their greatest asset but it eventually proved to be their biggest weakness.
    Special thanks to Franz Anthony for the beautiful cephalopod reconstructions. You can see more of Franz's tremendous work at 252mya.com
    And thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: spinops.blogspot.com/
    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: esclips.com/user/pbsdigitalstudios
    Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet?
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    References:
    www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/taxa/inverts/mollusca/mollusca.php
    citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.860.9021&rep=rep1&type=pdf
    onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bies.201100001/full
    www.deepseanews.com/2017/10/how-the-squid-lost-its-shell/
    www.researchgate.net/publication/269526655_An_endocochleate_experiment_in_the_Silurian_straight-shelled_cephalopod_Sphooceras
    link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13358-015-0100-3
    onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/1475-4983.00155/asset/1475-4983.00155.pdf?v=1&t=jedjjjbl&s=df93664ab7ea8768c2832ea135e7dd76626b0ea3
    journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0007262
    onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00828.x/epdf
    arstechnica.com/science/2017/11/if-you-liked-the-cambrian-explosion-youll-love-the-ordovician-radiation/
    Squid Empire by Danna Staaf: www.cephalopodiatrist.com/p/squid-empire.html
  • Ciencia y tecnolog铆aCiencia y tecnolog铆a

Comentarios • 2 279

  • Bruuhh Whyy ;3;
    Bruuhh Whyy ;3; Hace un hora

    Squids never had any shells..

  • scowell
    scowell Hace un d铆a

    What about Cyclops? Sorry, couldn't help myself...

  • qyahb
    qyahb Hace un d铆a

    As if evolution is the truth...

  • George Lancaster
    George Lancaster Hace 2 d铆as

    Ice cream c潭o潭n潭e潭s潭 Cthulu

  • Thomas Kinkade
    Thomas Kinkade Hace 2 d铆as

    The floating squid wizard is cute and menacing. I want a pet squizard.

  • Fly Wilder
    Fly Wilder Hace 2 d铆as

    The freaking squid at 6:30 doesnt know what to do with its tentacles

  • Indigo Ray
    Indigo Ray Hace 3 d铆as

    That thing looked so cute! Looks like it had a little wizards 馃馃徏鈥嶁檪锔 hat

  • mushnoodle
    mushnoodle Hace 3 d铆as

    0:10 This is not what i expected to show up at the lower end.

  • Maxxoo G
    Maxxoo G Hace 3 d铆as

    0:29 OCTOPUSSES???

  • Jared Elliott
    Jared Elliott Hace 10 d铆as

    They lost their shells and we got rid of our monkey ears...

  • Hallee Kenotia
    Hallee Kenotia Hace 10 d铆as

    brief yet comprehensive and informative just what I like..

  • Peter Cohan
    Peter Cohan Hace 11 d铆as

    I like those animals

  • Jesse Phelps
    Jesse Phelps Hace 11 d铆as +1

    Can we PLEASE have Neil DeGrasse Tyson co-host an episode on the astrological events that transpired at the time of the Cretaceous-Paleocene Extinction Event????????????????????
    That is perhaps the only thing that would make this channel better, seriously you guys rock! (((:

  • Leonard Scott
    Leonard Scott Hace 12 d铆as

    The episode's counter part is called how turtles got their shells.

  • Rainbow Sloth
    Rainbow Sloth Hace 12 d铆as

    It looks like a funny wizard hat

  • RobinDoggy
    RobinDoggy Hace 13 d铆as

    it is OCTOPI!!!!!!!!

  • Zuriel Dacoco
    Zuriel Dacoco Hace 14 d铆as

    Every Species is trying to get on top of the food chain. :3 that's where we don't wanna lose

  • Erick
    Erick Hace 15 d铆as

    Ey, how could we know if an ancient non-shelled mollusc ever existed? I mean, is it even going to become a focile? Can we be sure that ALL ancient molluscs had sells?

  • Happy Doggo
    Happy Doggo Hace 15 d铆as

    wtf it had a shell

  • Louise Haley
    Louise Haley Hace 16 d铆as

    When and why did humans lose their fur (to become 鈥 naked apes鈥) ?

  • Lostmywings
    Lostmywings Hace 17 d铆as

    Excellent video very informative. And not a single name mispronounced, see you can do it America!

  • kt032
    kt032 Hace 18 d铆as +1

    this channel is amazing!!! thanks for making this

  • Unity Diss
    Unity Diss Hace 18 d铆as

    Wait a minute, I know this guy... doesn鈥檛 he have another channel dedicated to history? I remember watching him when I was still in school.

  • b 0 t t i n i
    b 0 t t i n i Hace 18 d铆as +1

    I agree with comment below, freaking cool. - I wanna learn about EVERYTHING !

  • ElephantsLover
    ElephantsLover Hace 19 d铆as

    Its like a really big hat thats only possible to werar when youre underwater and gravity is quite light.

  • Seagma Egma
    Seagma Egma Hace 19 d铆as

    What about the shell between his eyes

  • Lana Noles
    Lana Noles Hace 19 d铆as

    Cthulhu鈥檚 garden gnomes

  • TheLastKnight
    TheLastKnight Hace 20 d铆as

    Did you just tell me that these organisms can choose to change their appearance and create or discard shells or features by choice?

    • Kacper Hartman
      Kacper Hartman Hace 11 horas

      In fact some cephalopods are able to change a colour and even shape!

  • vvvvvvvvvooooooooo
    vvvvvvvvvooooooooo Hace 20 d铆as

    How did scientist know that it looked like an upside down ice cream cone squid tho. I mean, squids dont have bones to show its structure

    • John DC
      John DC Hace 19 d铆as

      The shells would have fossilised like bone.

  • NvincibleIronMan
    NvincibleIronMan Hace 20 d铆as

    Octopuses @ 6:17 馃 octopi 馃し鈥嶁檪锔

  • Erin Okay
    Erin Okay Hace 20 d铆as

    Can someone please explain to me the actual gradual evelotion between one feature of an animal changing? Like was it a sudden generation of mollusks that could float from birth? Was it a handful who were then naturally selected to build a full generation? Did they figure out how to float over a lifespan and then those smart ones passed their genes on?

    • John DC
      John DC Hace 19 d铆as

      At first, there would have been a mollusc that had a shell that allowed them to become lighter. This would have given them an advantage as they could get farther and get more food in the water and not from bottomfeeding.
      These molluscs will reproduce and pass on their genes. Those with more advantageous genes, like becoming lighter and "floatier" from the shell, would have been passed down to offspring more. The not so advantageous molluscs woupd have died and not pass their genes.
      Eventually, they adapted to become more like the cephalopods you see in the vid.

  • Bubblelf
    Bubblelf Hace 20 d铆as

    that isn't a squid thats a wizard

  • theyellow240z
    theyellow240z Hace 21 un d铆a

    OMG CUTTLFEISH LOOK SHOO CUTEEE

  • Uchenna Macdonald
    Uchenna Macdonald Hace 21 un d铆a

    honestly, your story is really nice to listen to (and also convincing) but it just doesn't make much sense......someone please explain the thing

    • Kacper Hartman
      Kacper Hartman Hace 11 horas

      At your service, what do you want to know?

  • chopchop pochpoch
    chopchop pochpoch Hace 21 un d铆a

    i love science but i dont really believe this evolution theory.

  • Grell Sutcliff
    Grell Sutcliff Hace 21 un d铆a

    How does this video have over 1K dislikes?

  • Preston Siegler
    Preston Siegler Hace 21 un d铆a +1

    We are all four lobed fish. Food for thought.

  • Matthew Chenault
    Matthew Chenault Hace 22 d铆as

    Floaty bois should be brought back.

  • m faidhi
    m faidhi Hace 22 d铆as

    squidward evolution

  • Edgy On Porpoise
    Edgy On Porpoise Hace 22 d铆as

    I think Octopuses might be my favourite animals like, ever. I'd honestly love to learn more about them!

  • Minhchau Nguyen
    Minhchau Nguyen Hace 22 d铆as

    I thought hank worked with scishow

  • monkeygoesbananas
    monkeygoesbananas Hace 22 d铆as

    the plectronoceras is so cute. Lil buddy looks like he's wearing an ugly birthday hat I love him

  • d300wallace
    d300wallace Hace 22 d铆as

    Trypophobia warning

  • Mike Carone
    Mike Carone Hace 22 d铆as

    Early Cyler Baby

  • Jose Espinoza
    Jose Espinoza Hace 22 d铆as

    It鈥檚 insane, humans have only been around for 10,000 years MAX and yet we鈥檝e drastically changed the world unlike any other of the billions of species that have popped in and out of existence. Makes me wonder if we鈥檙e just another species that will only stay for a blip of time, only for a couple thousand years. Then life will begin how it started yet again billions of years ago. I just kind of wish we weren鈥檛 so different sometimes. Maybe the universe is a never ending cycle and you just come back at random times throughout its cycle, becoming whatever available. But playing your part.

  • Jeroen s
    Jeroen s Hace 23 d铆as

    At 03:38 you say that sphooceras tried a different tactic...breaking the end off the shells...how did you come to that conclusion? It's not like they just popped into existence over night, right? arn't there any intermediate fossiles or something? It feels like you just state/assume things but I would like to know why and how this came to be...I could see why some people wouldn't just accept this (creationists). Me? I'm just a sceptic and really interested :)

    • Kacper Hartman
      Kacper Hartman Hace 11 horas

      I don't know about that fossil record but I assume that they've not found transition fossil, secondly these adaptation may be effect of rapid mutation(for me more possible is the first option)

  • Renaldo Bryan
    Renaldo Bryan Hace 23 d铆as

    I still don't get how the know such details about how they lived from a fossil

  • Houston Lawson
    Houston Lawson Hace 23 d铆as

    OCTOPI

  • liam hamard
    liam hamard Hace 23 d铆as

    6:10
    The I.Shell,
    Think different

  • Scott .McKinney
    Scott .McKinney Hace 23 d铆as

    Not 20 feet long it鈥檚 18 feel long dummy

  • Remi OwO
    Remi OwO Hace 24 d铆as

    It looks like a wizard

  • Robert Boyd
    Robert Boyd Hace 24 d铆as

    You forgot to talk about how they learned to life on land and began developing language living together in harmony with the until THE GREAT TURF WAR

  • So Cal Bee Guy
    So Cal Bee Guy Hace 24 d铆as

    Clickbait: I came for the African folktale.

  • The de bum dum
    The de bum dum Hace 24 d铆as

    Since they evolved and started to float is it possible that they will be able to float out of the water U.U

  • The de bum dum
    The de bum dum Hace 24 d铆as

    Your big thinking words confuse me

  • Brogus Jeri
    Brogus Jeri Hace 25 d铆as +1

    Hank! What are you doing here?

  • Legacy
    Legacy Hace 25 d铆as

    He looks like iDubz

  • Crystal Keith
    Crystal Keith Hace 25 d铆as

    He said octopus's.... Isn't it octopi ??

  • Fiberpoet
    Fiberpoet Hace 26 d铆as

    I wanna know in the extinction that killed the dinosaurs... how did the Avian dinosaurs survive?

    • Kacper Hartman
      Kacper Hartman Hace 11 horas

      It maybe just stroke if luck but:
      This extiction didn't last a day. Due to ashes, volcanoes and climate change it lasted for hundreds of years. Birds were smaller and didn't need as much food. Ancestors of modern birds were mos propably ground dwelling because hundreds of forest were burnt and only small plants like ferns could've regrown in that time.

  • Weird Beard
    Weird Beard Hace 26 d铆as

    I for one welcome our Cthulhu overlord... and I'd like to remind them as a youtube personality I could help them round up others to toil in their chanting chambers.

  • ruessin
    ruessin Hace 27 d铆as

    Isnt this the guy from crash course?

  • Neo Fajardo
    Neo Fajardo Hace 28 d铆as

    so the Squid lost it shell because the turtle stole it, that's my theory

  • Boone E
    Boone E Hace 29 d铆as

    God Hank is the best, Ps if you don't you know Hank works on another channel called SchiShow. You should really go check it out if you like l this.

  • john hand
    john hand Hace 29 d铆as

    i love to know where my calamari came from

  • obliterator deathcon 4
    obliterator deathcon 4 Hace 29 d铆as

    ummm snails still keep their shells

  • Thomas Estwick
    Thomas Estwick Hace un mes +1

    Science... 馃檶 馃檹

  • Clara Ibarra
    Clara Ibarra Hace un mes

    They all look delicious 馃構

  • Josh Riley
    Josh Riley Hace un mes

    Next up: How the Squid learned to walk on land and make ink guns.

  • Bradley Thurmond
    Bradley Thurmond Hace un mes

    it is all dependent on what is available. world space ship.

  • Apple Juice
    Apple Juice Hace un mes

    Mr. Hank Greene I wish you a very merry Chocolate and Mint season.

  • ElGrandeIngenio
    ElGrandeIngenio Hace un mes

    upside down icecream cones - cthulu flavored

  • Sam Haines
    Sam Haines Hace un mes +1

    That was pure poetry!

  • Stephen Lap Hin Wong
    Stephen Lap Hin Wong Hace un mes

    Bio-engineering at its finest.

  • Maria Kayed
    Maria Kayed Hace un mes +1

    Very interesting video, thank you. Can you please make a video about the species that remain rather unchanged over millions of years and why they remain like this, slower mutation rates? very successful form? are they actually changing and the other forms disappeared?

  • Adithyan M A
    Adithyan M A Hace un mes

    Crocodile ...... Salt water crocodile please

  • Dinosaurprince
    Dinosaurprince Hace un mes

    Someone needs to add Splatoon sound effects to this.

  • computername
    computername Hace un mes

    That shows intelligence and flexibility are more successful than shells. Yet many people in todays society think literally building walls around them will solve the problems.

  • Crusty Cobs
    Crusty Cobs Hace un mes +2

    Thanks for this explanation of the fascinating evoltion of Cephalopods for nerds. PBS is a wonderful educational channel.

  • My name is L
    My name is L Hace un mes

    Squid and octopus are some of the most intelligentanimals on this earth only second to creatures like dolphin, orcas, monkeys etc.

  • Stealthought
    Stealthought Hace un mes

    Interesting video , fucking annoying narrating.

  • Juan Valadez
    Juan Valadez Hace un mes

    What the shell馃悮

  • Juan Valadez
    Juan Valadez Hace un mes

    Those are some big words for shell

  • Noah Lorenzo Vencio
    Noah Lorenzo Vencio Hace un mes

    This makes me question what if prehistoric animals still lived today???

  • Glassbreaker
    Glassbreaker Hace un mes

    Did he digivolved?

  • NinjaPuppy
    NinjaPuppy Hace un mes

    I'll let "cephalopods" go, but the few plurals for octopus are 'octopedes' 'octopods' and 'octopodidae'

  • Official Leotique.
    Official Leotique. Hace un mes

    Hank and Joe looks more like siblings than Hank and John

  • Earth Man
    Earth Man Hace un mes

    How did the chicken cross the road?

  • Bengt Cenatiempo
    Bengt Cenatiempo Hace un mes

    Hank, that's one disgusting ice cream cone.

  • Dan Olympiadis
    Dan Olympiadis Hace un mes +2

    This is a super interesting story. Great explanations

  • Woko100 Dan
    Woko100 Dan Hace un mes

    The history of calamari

  • 鏄熷嚖 鏄熷嚖
    鏄熷嚖 鏄熷嚖 Hace un mes

    What gas is in their shells and how they get it? I guess dissolved gas in ocean water or they create gas.

  • Jy Ang
    Jy Ang Hace un mes

    Mer莽i

  • Cynthia Brown
    Cynthia Brown Hace un mes

    can you make a vid about malware?

  • bonob0123
    bonob0123 Hace un mes

    fantastic

  • jesseon7 fttt
    jesseon7 fttt Hace un mes

    I thought for sure they were going to pin this one on global warming too.

  • Obsidian1392
    Obsidian1392 Hace un mes

    Fantastic, thank you!

  • FlufyMarshmllows
    FlufyMarshmllows Hace un mes

    Subbed!

  • Alejandro Rodolfo Mendez

    you are a kid, you are a squid.
    great video, it helps a lot.

  • Stephanie Lopez
    Stephanie Lopez Hace un mes +1

    Boi you said "octopuses" and it's octopi.

    • Copydot
      Copydot Hace un mes +1

      It's both. And octopi is technically wrong anyway, since "octopus" comes from Greek and -i is a Latin plural.

  • more Hassan tube
    more Hassan tube Hace 2 meses

    Admit it
    It looks cute with a shell